"Visi nori to savo versliuko": posovietinė deindustrializacija, darbas ir pragyvenimo būdai Marijampolėje

Direct Link:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
"Visi nori to savo versliuko": posovietinė deindustrializacija, darbas ir pragyvenimo būdai Marijampolėje
Alternative Title:
  • "Everyone wants their own business": post-soviet deindustrialisation, work and means of livelihood in Marijampolė
  • Post-soviet deindustrialisation, work and means of livelihood in Marijampolė
In the Journal:
Lietuvos etnologija. 2020, 20 (29), p. 37-59
20 amžius; 21 amžius; Marijampolė; Lietuva (Lithuania); Miestai ir miesteliai / Cities and towns; Verslas / Business.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje, remiantis Marijampolės mieste atliktu lauko tyrimu, keliamas klausimas, kaip Marijampolėje, kuri sovietmečiu plėtota kaip industrinis miestas, buvo pragyventi deindustrializacijos, nulemtos ekonominio posūkio iš sovietinės planinės ekonomikos į rinkos ekonomiką, sukelti iššūkiai. Analizuojami aspektai, lėmę individualių veiklų susikūrimą ir plėtojimą; kaip plėtojamas lanksčiai organizuojamas darbas ir jo įvairovė kūrė naujas darbo vietas bei transformavo buvusio sovietinio industrinio miesto vietas; darbo sampratos pokyčiai. Straipsnyje atskleidžiama, jog deindustrializacijos sukelti iššūkiai buvo išgyventi pasitelktus verslumą ir neformalius pragyvenimo būdus: įvairią prekybą ir paslaugų teikimą, turinčius polinkį plėstis, įtraukti artimus asmenis ir formuoti naujas struktūras. Raktiniai žodžiai: darbas, pragyvenimo būdai, verslas, posovietinė deindustrializacija, Marijampolė. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe political processes in the reconstruction of statehood and the restructuring of the economy resulted in deindustrialisation, which led to a work crisis: the loss of jobs, unemployment, and non-payment or low incomes in cities in Lithuania. The paper asks how residents of Marijampolė, a former Soviet industrial centre, made a living during the work crisis, and what means of livelihood were developed in order to make a living or improve their economic well-being. The paper analyses the transformation of the city of Marijampolė, by presenting a view of today’s Kaunas Street; the beginnings of self-employment; aspects of how livelihoods were developed and formalised; how new workplaces were created; and changes in the conception of work. The paper is based on fieldwork carried out in Marijampolė from November 2018 to December 2019. In order to get to know Marijampolė and the cultural processes in it, walking ethnography and interviews with industrial workers, as well as with workers in other fields, were performed. It should be emphasised that people who were not directly involved in the activities of industrial enterprises also faced the challenges of deindustrialisation. The sight of Kaunas Street, abandoned industrial buildings, kiosks, small shops, supermarkets and various companies involved in car sales, shows the diversity of work activities and workplaces, as well as the fragmentation of industry in Marijampolė. The transformation of places in Marijampolė represents means of livelihood: trading and various services. The article further analyses human actions that were practised during the work crisis. It reveals three ways self-employment was started. First, self-employment was initiated by adapting formal work practices that were performed in Soviet times.Second, individual work activities were a continuation of late Soviet-era entrepreneurship and informal activities, such as driving to other countries to engage in trade. Third, the use of personal connections. The paper reveals that self-employment was started not by the activation of social connections of owners of kiosks or car sellers, but rather by receiving suggestions from friends, family members or colleagues. It is emphasised that the activity or entrepreneurship itself has the ability to involve other people. Local entrepreneurship and work activities created conditions for the development of alternative economic practices. This situation created the common business of mašininiai. This is understood as collective involvement in activities related to car dealing. The article highlights that the creation of new workplaces and the expansion of business was made based on work experience, and entrepreneurial and work logic. As the business expanded, a new structure emerged. In this case, another person is employed and receives a fixed salary, and the founder of the business becomes a person who employs others. These processes and the legalisation of informal work activities were factors which determined that means of livelihood became formal jobs and a part of everyday life in Marijampolė. The article also emphasises that self-employment is conceptualised as ‘business’, which is associated with long-term activities, active actions to create personal financial well-being, cleverness, and the ability to take advantage of opportunities. The concept of ‘business’ includes the activity itself: trade or the provision of services, and the ownership of property. ‘Business’ can also indicate the field of interrelated activities. The article reveals that a means of livelihood is conceptualised as more than self-employment.It connects the active creation of a workplace, individual work activities and ownership. To conclude, the article stresses that various means of livelihood, individual activity, and the tendency of business to expand and grow were a way of making a living through the work crisis that was caused by deindustrialisation. These aspects and the common business of mašininiai created a new social and economic structure in Marijampolė, which produced the conditions for creating new jobs and involving personal connections. The work crisis was dealt with by creating workplaces outside industrial enterprises.Key words: work, means of livelihood, business, post-Soviet deindustrialization, Marijampolė. [From the publication]

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2022-11-27 19:15:12
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