Verkių dvaras XVIII a. pirmoje pusėje

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Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Verkių dvaras XVIII a. pirmoje pusėje
Alternative Title:
Verkiai manor in the first half of the 18th century
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2020, t. 97, p. 229-253. Dvarų kultūra: erdvės, istorija, kultūros paveldas
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Verkiai; Vilnius; XVIII a. kultūra; Konstantinas Kazimieras Bžostovskis; Ignotas Jokūbas Masalskis; Baroko architektūra; Verkiai; Vilnius; 18th century culture; Konstanty Kazimierz Brzostowski; Ignacy Jakub Massalski; Baroque architecture.
Architektūra / Architecture; Barokas / Baroque; Ignotas Jokūbas Masalskis; Konstantinas Kazimieras Bžostovskis; Verkiai; XVIII a. kultūra.
18th century culture; Ignacy Jakub Massalski; Konstanty Kazimierz Brzostowski.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje aptariamas neišlikęs Verkių dvaro sodybos ansamblis, sukurtas XVIII a. pirmoje pusėje, vyskupo Konstantino Kazimiero Bžostovskio laikais, ir su nedideliais pokyčiais išlikęs iki vyskupo Ignoto Jokūbo Masalskio užsakymu įvykdytos ansamblio pertvarkos bei perstatymo. Apie XVIII a. pirmos pusės Verkių dvaro pastatus iki šiol turėta nedaug žinių. Tyrime remiamasi 1766 m. dvaro inventoriumi ir archeologinių tyrimų duomenimis. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe complex of the Verkiai Manor, a property of Vilnius bishops since the Christianisation of Lithuania, has had an extraordinary significance for Lithuanian culture, but until today it has not received enough research attention. The article discusses the defunct ensemble of the Verkiai Manor, which was built at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries, in the times of Bishop Konstanty Kazimierz Brzostowski (served in the Vilnius diocese between 1687 and 1722), and survived with minor changes until the ensemble was restructured and rebuilt on commission from Bishop Ignacy Jakub Massalski. The study is based on the manor inventory of 1766 and the data of archaeological excavations and architectural research. The representational part of the manor, the so-called castle, was situated on the upper terrace, on a hill, while wooden auxiliary buildings and a new Prussian-masonry brewery stood below, at the Neris River, where a garden also extended. The buildings on the higher terrace, mostly wooden, were symmetrically arranged and together with fences surrounded the oval-shaped courtyard around its perimeter. Two wooden servants’ quarters stood out among other buildings, while two brick servants’ quarters (one of them housing a chapel, and the other one – an orangery) and a brick central palace were situated on the southern side of the hill. In 1987–1991, during the excavations, the foundations of the central palace dated to the first half of the 18th century were excavated, and it was established that they abutted on brickwork from several earlier periods (the identification and interpretations of the earliest brickwork still has to be conducted).Brzostowski’s palace was 33.5 m long and 16–25 m wide. In the first half of the 18th century, the ground floor of the palace contained a hall with six windows, south of it were three rooms and a small “secret” room, a porch on the north side, and four rooms arranged symmetrically on both sides of the porch. The first floor could be accessed through a balcony on the north façade, the planning structure of this floor was almost identical to that of the ground floor, but there is not enough data to establish the location of two small rooms adjoining the rooms in the north western and south eastern corners, which are mentioned in the sources. The second floor had four rooms – three to the right side of the staircase, and one to the left, and three windows are mentioned in each of them. The room on the left had access to a little balcony, thus there is grounds to presume that all the rooms of the second floor were in the north wing. There is a mention of the foundations for a column portico laid in 1766 on the north (main) façade, and the first and second floors of this façade had little balconies. An arched gallery and a stairway from the side of the Neris River were attached to the south façade. The east and west façades were decorated by one-tier arched galleries connecting the turrets. Between 1766 and the early 19th century, the following reconstructions of the old central building were conducted in several stages according to the projects of Marcin Knackfus and, possibly, Wawrzyniec Gucewicz: the ceiling of the great hall was dismantled and the room was converted into a high vaulted hall lit through the first-floor windows, the ground-floor windows of the great hall were bricked up, pilasters that decorated its external walls were newly rebuilt, three interior rooms in the north wing (probably on the first floor) were restructured into an oblong rectangular hall, and later, small rooms gradually appeared on the south side of the north towers.two rooms were also added north of the southern corner rooms at the expense of the side arched galleries, which were reduced and became more similar to recessed loggias. It seems that on the north façade, a porch supported with pillars was constructed. Comparing the manor inventory and the data of archaeological excavations allows us assume that the new central palace designed by Gucewicz was built north of the old palace, in the area between the two demolished brick servants’ quarters of the first half of the 18th century, and probably even abutted on their walls. Hopefully, in the future, we will be able to localise the other buildings mentioned in the inventory of 1766 more precisely. [From the publication]

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2021-02-17 09:38:33
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