Verkių sodai vyskupo Ignoto Jokūbo Masalskio laikais

Direct Link:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Verkių sodai vyskupo Ignoto Jokūbo Masalskio laikais
Alternative Title:
Verkiai gardens in the times of bishop Ignacy Jakub Massalski
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2018, t. 88/89, p. 89-105. Sodai: tradicijos, įvaizdžiai, simboliai Lietuvos kultūroje
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Ignotas Juozapas Masalskis; Laurynas Gucevičius; Martynas Knakfusas; Verkiai; Parkai; Ignacy Jakub Massalski; Laurynas Gucevičius; Marcin Knackfuss; Verkiai; Park design.
Ignotas Juozapas Masalskis; Laurynas Gucevičius; Martynas Knakfusas; Parkai / Parks; Verkiai.
Ignacy Jakub Massalski; Marcin Knackfuss; Park design.
Summary / Abstract:

LTIgnotas Juozapas Masalskis Vilniaus vyskupu tapo 1762 m., buvo nužudytas 1794 metais. Laikotarpį tarp šių datų apima straipsnis, skirtas Verkių sodų istorijai. Publikacija parengta remiantis naujai atrastais Verkių dvaro inventoriais bei planais. Šie dokumentai leidžia visai naujai pažvelgti tiek į Verkių architektūrinio ansamblio raidą, tiek ir į šio dvaro sodų ir parko istoriją. Analizuojant Masalskio valdymo laikotarpiu atliktus ansamblio pakeitimus, pirmiausia atkreipiamas dėmesys į didelius kraštovaizdžio formavimo, inžinierinius darbus, ypač į tvenkinių ir kanalų sistemos kūrimą, kelių tvarkymą ir apželdinimą. Remiantis dvaro inventoriais nustatoma Masalskio įkurto peizažinio parko vieta ir struktūra, aptariami iki mūsų dienų neišlikę dekoratyviniai šio parko elementai (tvenkiniai, kanalai, kaskados, fontanas) ir mažosios architektūros statiniai. [Iš leidinio]

ENReferring to the archival sources not yet addressed by researchers, the author of the article aims to reconsider the development of the Verkiai gardens and landscape park in the period of rule of Bishop Ignacy Jakub Massalski (1762–1794). Various types of gardens (decorative gardens, fruit gardens, vegetable gardens etc.) and the park in Verkiai are discussed. In analyzing the changes that the ensemble underwent in this period, first of all, attention is drawn to large-scale landscaping and engineering works, as well as building the system of ponds and canals, road facilities construction and landscaping. New archival sources provide interesting data about the efforts of Bishop Massalski to develop economic activity on the estate and create a landscape of extraordinary beauty. Contrary to what has been believed before, in Massalski’s times there were gardens rather than a park in the south-eastern part of the estate, on the lower terrace of the Neris River, which combined both the economic and decorative functions. A complex of auxiliary buildings that was located nearby determined a rather utilitarian function of this part of the estate, but the combination of aesthetic value and economic profitability turned it into a charming segment of the estate’s territory. In the meantime, in the landscape park (“a wild garden”), aesthetic and philosophical meanings laden with Masonic symbolism prevailed, although the “economic” aspect was also present (fish were bred in the canals, a watermill operated).Much attention is devoted to the issues of the establishment of the park, its location, structure and authorship. It is highly relevant, as in the newest publications on the topic one can find statements denying the existence of a landscape park in Verkiai in the late 18th century, which gives a wrong perspective on the estate’s history. In the article, the author specifies the chronology of the development of the Verkiai gardens and park, revealing that the architect Laurynas Gucevičius should be considered the creator of the landscape park. He implemented and, in certain cases, probably also corrected the bishop’s vision. Referring to the written sources and field research, the author of the article proves that in the late 18th century the landscape park was established in a large hilly territory that extended west of Verkiai Hill towards Jeruzalė, and partly on the upper terrace of the hill. She discusses the decorative elements of the landscape park (ponds, canals, cascades, a fountain) and buildings of small-scale architecture (brick and wooden bridges, wooden altanas and the (unfinished) brick Unity Church) that have not survived until our days but are recorded in the inventories. These are so far unknown works by Gucevičius, traces of which can still be found in the park territory. The author rejects the opinion rooted in historiography that “de Ligne’s circle” mentioned in the sources was located in the palace parterre, and argues that it was sited in the zone of the upper folwark. New data is particularly valuable for the further research, improvement and restoration of the Verkiai ensemble. [From the publication]

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2019-09-13 14:30:49
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