Postmodernusis kapitalizmas: vartojimas, suprekinimas ir suišteklinimas

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Postmodernusis kapitalizmas: vartojimas, suprekinimas ir suišteklinimas
Alternative Title:
Postmodern capitalism: consumption, commoditization and resourcification
Keywords:
LT
Genai; Martinas Heideggeris (Martin Heidegger); Kapitalizmas; Kultūra; Marxas, Karlas; Masmedijos; Modernybė; Politika; Poreikių gamyba; Postmodernizmas; Postmodernybė; Socializmas; Suišteklinimas; Suprekinimas; Vartojimas.
EN
Capitalism; Commercialization; Consumption; Culture; Genes; Heidegger, Martin; Mass media; Modernity; Politics; Postmodernism; Postmodernity; Production of needs; Resourcification; Socialism.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStudijoje išskleidžiamas postmodernybės, kaip kapitalizmo raidos stadijos, supratimas. Modernybės ir postmodernybės skirtis aiškinama naujų suprekinimo ir suišteklinimo sričių - kultūros, gyvybės ir kūno, taip pat politikos - atžvilgiu. Kapitalizmo raidos analizė grindžiama K. Marxo ir M. Heideggerio įžvalgomis, kurios laikomos didelę „dabarties ontologijų“ aiškinamąją galią išlaikiusiais koncepciniais rėmais. Marxo iškelta suprekinanti žmogaus gyvenamąjį pasaulį kapitalo galia, nustatanti žmogaus veiklos ir jo savikūros sąlygas, susiejama su Heideggerio aptartu mokslo, technikos ir gamybos susivienijimu apskaičiuojančio projektavimo vyksme, kuris žmogaus gyvenamą pasaulį ir jį patį paverčia žaliava ir ištekliais. Tvirtinama, jog žmogaus ir jo gyvenamo pasaulio suprekinimas ir suišteklinimas - tai du vienas kitą palaikantys ir skatinantys procesai, kurie visuotiniu (globaliu) būdu pasireiškia postmodernybėje, aptikus gyvybėje, žmogaus kūne ir dvasinėje veikloje neišsenkamų išteklių atsargas. Kita kapitalizmo raidos „linija“ siejama su kultūros suprekinimu, kultūros virtimu ženklais, įgaunančiais tapatumų tvirtinimo galią, išsiskleidžiančią gyvenimo stilių vartojimo paskatomis bei vaizdiniais. [Iš straipsnio, p. 405]

ENThe author of this study considers postmodernity as the stage of the development of capitalism. The difference between modernity and postmodernity is explained in relation to the new sphere of commoditization and resourcefication, namely that of the human body and life with all natural living processes. The analysis of the transition from modernity to postmodernity is based on some Marxian and Heideggerian insights. It is supposed that these insights form a powerful conceptual frame for the analysis of the so called „ontologies of presence“ and related phenomena. The authors main point is that the power of capital which commoditizes human Lebenswelt establishing guidelines for human activity and human self-creation corresponds with the unity of science, technology, and production established by the process of calculative projection which transforms the Lebenswelt and man himself into various materials and resources. The claim is made that the commoditization and resourcification of human being are the two processes supporting and promoting each other and that these processes attain the global and universal form in postmodernity, when in life itself, and the human body, and also in the spiritual activity are discovered inexhaustible resources. The author comes to the conclusion that the patenting of genes, proteins, and biotechnologies are forms of expropriation and exploitation of these resources and that the genetic discourse becomes new worldview. Another „line“ of the development of capitalism is related to consumer society and consumption economics, thus the consumption phenomenon, especially the relation between culture and consumption are analyzed.Many researchers suppose that consumption is knit with the individual needs and wants, however, the scenario of unlimited economic development is based on direct link between production and needs. It means that the notion of independently determined desires is undermined. The analysis of consumption is based on the insights of J. K. Galbraith and J. Baudrillard and results in a conclusion that under the consumption capitalism all variety of needs and wants is produced with goods. At this stage of capitalism culture becomes economic force producing wants and implementing them as a vision of higher living standards and also as the social means of individual identity formation. In this article Baudrillardian critique of the use value fetishism is employed to unveil the ideological content of such concepts as “free consumer choice” and “freedom of consumption”. Also some features of socialist consumption and its link with capitalist one are examined. The last section of the study deals with the relationships between mass-media, especially the advertising and public relation firms, and politics under market conditions and commoditizing impulses.The main argument is that mass-media as a politically and economically powerful mediator between the public and the politicians act as a strong commoditizing force. One function of this force is to commoditize the public and to sell this good to advertisers and public relation firms. The second function is to strengthen the buying and selling relations in the sphere of public politics. The analysis of consumer society is based on the notion of society of spectacle because the representations and images are special commodities and at the same time powerful means of politics. Thus we can speak about political commodities and political marketing. These concepts of the free market, consumer society, and political marketing forces us to think about the possibilities of democratic political processes within democratic constraints and of responsibility of politicians who act as popular entertainment figures and political images. [From the publication p. 580-581]

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Updated:
2020-12-17 20:25:40
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