Suvalkiečių išskirtinumas: būdo savybės ar kalbėjimas?

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Suvalkiečių išskirtinumas: būdo savybės ar kalbėjimas?
Alternative Title:
Knowledge and use of the local dialect and linguistic attitudes in Suvalkija
Keywords:
LT
Daugiakalbystė; Kalbos miestuose; Tarmės miestuose; Sociolingvistika.
EN
Multilingualism; Languages in cities; Dialects in cities; Sociolinguistics.
Summary / Abstract:

LTTapatybės dažnai (re)konstruojamos pagal situaciją. Yra žinoma, kad kalbėtojai, kuriuos sieja artimesni etniniai ryšiai, dažniau vartoja etninės grupės kalbą ir rečiau daugumos kalbą, todėl tikėtina, kad ilgainiui išlaikys kalbą ir etninę tapatybę. Toks artimas etninių ryšių egzistavimas sietinas su Suvalkijos regione gyvenančiais tiriamaisiais, o Kauno suvalkiečių teigtas aukštas etninis gyvybingumas grupėje ir stiprus tapatinimasis su grupe (priešingu atveju grėstų greita asimiliacija ir daugumos kalbos vartojimas) leidžia manyti, kad jų regioninė tapatybė ir tarmė bus išlaikyta. Globalizacijos kontekste socialiniai santykiai nėra daugiau ribojami teritoriškai, todėl net ir išvykus į kitą kalbinę aplinką dažnai psichologinis prieraišumas, grįžtamieji apsilankymai, materialiniai saitai su gimtąja vieta – visa tai gali lemti kalbinio ir kultūrinio išlaikymo „diasporoje“ teigiamus procesus (žr. Lanza ir Svenson 2007). Nuostatų tyrimai leidžia atskleisti kodo socialinę svarbą, numatyti vienos ar kitos atmainos gyvybingumą, jos ateities perspektyvas (Ramonienė 2006: 137), nes kalbos (kalbos atmainos) gyvybingumas priklauso nuo bendruomenės, identifikuojančios šią kalbą (kalbos atmainą) kaip savo, požiūrio (Romaine 2000; Sachdev, Hanlon 2000). Taigi, atlikus nors ir nedidelį kalbinių nuostatų tyrimą paaiškėjo, kad suvalkiečių nuostatos savos tarmės atžvilgiu yra teigiamos. Nepriklausomai nuo gyvenamosios vietos, suvalkiečiai linkę kalbėti tarmiškai ir tapatinasi su Suvalkijos regionu. Nors globalizacijos ir urbanizacijos procesai nepalankūs skirtybėms, ypač kalbinėms, išlaikyti, jaunosios kartos nuostatos rodo, kad suvalkiečių tapatybė ir tarmė, ypač suvalkietiškos tarties elementai, vis dar gyvi ir, matyt, išliks ateityje. [Iš straipsnio, p. 122]

ENThis chapter focuses on the region of Suvalkija and the city of Kaunas. Interestingly, this region reveals specific attitudes of the respondents towards the relationship between one’s identity and dialect, on the one hand, and the standard language variety on the other. In order to describe the linguistic attitudes of the residents of Suvalkija, the respondents were asked to provide data about their ethnic identity, choice of language varieties for private and official communication, indicate situations in which the use of a dialect would be suitable, express views on their native and other dialects of Lithuanian. The data was used to analyse the respondents’ perception of the relationship between standard and dialectal varieties, correlate their views with such factors as age, gender, and education. All the respondents from the region were streamed into two groups: local residents of Suvalkija in the urban areas of Suvalkija, and people coming from Suvalkija and residing in Kaunas. The latter group, which is more homogeneous in terms of gender and education, holds a different opinion on certain questions, and the difference could be particularly interesting in the context of majority–minority or immigrant communities. The analysis of responses to the question on identity revealed four major factors which determine the perception of ethnic identity (“I am a Lithuanian”). They are the origin of parents, birthplace, permanent residence, and the Lithuanian language. Moreover, the study disclosed a dual perception of identity, namely Lithuanian-Suvalkietian: irrespectively of their age or gender, the respondents indicate that they are not only true Lithuanians, but also they identify themselves with their native region and declare their Suvalkietian identity. Admittedly, this dual identity is usually related to their place of birth rather than the use of the local dialect.Respondents who permanently live in Suvalkija think that only elderly people use the dialect in all spheres of life, whereas the younger generation try to adjust the language to the situation and interlocutors. All respondents indicated that they could speak their native dialect. They have also admitted that there is no difference between the language spoken by the generation of their parents and their children, except for the language of grandparents who use more dialectal words than their grandchildren. The respondents also agree that at least one feature of their dialect, namely the Suvalkietian accent, is strongly felt in the language spoken by the younger people. They confirm that since their school days they have been aware of the significance of their local dialect to the formation of Standard Lithuanian, which, as a consequence, enhances their appreciation of the dialect and makes them feel proud of it. In contrast, certain features of the dialect (the specific accent) and stereotypes of the national character of the people of Suvalkija, namely stinginess, quite often push their self-esteem towards the negative end. In general, the linguistic attitudes of people in this region are positive. Irrespective of their place of residence, people tend to use their dialect and identify themselves with the region of Suvalkija. Even if globalisation and urbanisation blur regional differences, linguistic in particular, linguistic attitudes of the younger generation show that the identity and dialect of people in Suvalkija, especially the accent, are still alive and will be preserved in the future. [From the publication]

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Updated:
2020-05-27 17:50:06
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