Lietuvos probleminių regionų bendrojo ugdymo mokyklų tinklo kaita 2001–2016 m. – didėjančios teritorinės atskirties atspindys

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Lietuvos probleminių regionų bendrojo ugdymo mokyklų tinklo kaita 2001–2016 m. – didėjančios teritorinės atskirties atspindys
Alternative Title:
Changes in the network of general education schools in problematic regions of Lithuania in 2001–2016 – increasing reflection of spatial exclusion
In the Journal:
Geografijos metraštis [Annales Geographicae. Geographical Yearbook]. 2017, 50, p. 57-74
Keywords:
LT
Bendrasis išsilavinimas; Bendrasis ugdymas; Erdvinė atskirtis; Gerovė; Probleminis regionas; Probliminiai regionai; Retai apgyvendintos teritorijos; Socialinė atskirtis; Teritoriniai skirtumai; Tritoriniai skirtumai.
EN
Exclusion; General education; Problem region; Social exclusion; Sparsely populated areas; Spatial; Territorial differences; Welfare.
Summary / Abstract:

ENThe purpose of this research was to determine 2001–2016 the trends of the change in the network of general education schools in Lithuania’s problem regions during the period and to assess their impact on the growing social and spatial exclusion which directly relates to the quality of life and welfare. The purpose of this study was to determine 2001–2016 the trends of the change in the network of general education schools in Lithuania’s problem regions during the period and to assess their impact on the growing social and spatial exclusion which directly relates to the quality of life and welfare. Twenty-two sparsely populated municipalities (hereafter SPM) have been selected as the subject of the research in which the rural population density in 2017 at the beginning of the year does not exceed 12,5 inhabitants per square kilometer and could be considered as an integral part of problem regions. In this article, the network of general education schools is regarded as one of the main factors influencing spatial and social exclusion. The analysis of changes in the network of general education schools in 2001–2016 has shown that the network of schools is disappearing very rapidly. Especially this trend is marked by SPM (for example, in North-East Lithuania). This is mostly influenced by negative demographic processes (low fertility and natural decrease in population, large emigration abroad and larger cities of the country, population aging).Therefore, in 2001–2016 SPM: the number of pupils in general education schools has decreased faster than the average in the country (45,1% in Lithuania, 55,1% in SPM); the number of schools of general education decreased faster than the average in the country (49,3% in Lithuania, 61,9% in SPM); the number of teachers of general education schools has rapidly decreased (37,9% in Lithuania, 48,8% in all rural areas); there was a degradation of the network of schools – part of the schools were closed (liquidated), some of them were reorganized into lower-level educational establishments or became branches of other schools; the concentration of schools in municipal administrative centers and larger settlements took place, which made schools "move" and become more difficult to reach; regional differences in the density of school networks have increased. In some municipalities in the North-Eastern Lithuania (Molėtai and Ignalina district) the number of schools decreased by as much as 70–75%. In addition, the loss of the school network has a potential impact on the increase in spatial and social exclusion, as: increase distance to the nearest educational institution; the availability of public transport services for the whole population may decrease (reducing the number of routes and voyages, which worsens the accessibility of other institutions;  locality loses attractiveness, prospect, as companies and institutions that provide services (services and facilities) disappear and disappear (infrastructure of social services disappears); the territory's viability and attractiveness for investments are decreasing; the unemployment rate may increase as job losses (unemployed teachers, other servicing staff) remain, people are forced to seek work elsewhere. If trends do not change, and assumptions are not yet available, the whole of Lithuania's rural territory will rarely come to life in the next 10–12 years.It is likely that after several years, schools of general education will remain only in municipal centers or in larger settlements, not only in North Eastern Lithuania but also in other problem regions. There is also no assumption that the situation in the network of general education schools will improve in the near future. The disappearance of the network of general education schools rapid depopulation processes in SPM, increases the social and spatial exclusion of the population, which creates preconditions for assigning them to problem regions. Therefore, the monitoring of the education system should be permanent, carried out not only nationwide, but also separately from the SMP. A low population density reference threshold should be set aside, leading to the introduction of special measures to stabilize the school network (our proposed limit is less than 12,5 or 15,0 inhabitants per square kilometer rural population density). This will ensure a coherent and sound regional education policy. [...]. [From the publication]

ISSN:
0132-3156; 2335-8610
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/82787
Updated:
2020-07-28 20:31:09
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