Vilniaus pilių fauna: nuo kepsnio iki draugo

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knyga / Book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Vilniaus pilių fauna: nuo kepsnio iki draugo
Editors:
Blaževičius, Povilas, įvadas [aui]
Publication Data:
Vilnius : Vilniaus universiteto leidykla, 2018.
Pages:
323 p
Notes:
Bibliografija.
Contents:
Pratarmė / Povilas Blaževičius — Žinduoliai Vilniaus pilyse / Giedrė Piličiauskienė, Povilas Blaževičius — Paukščiai Vilniaus pilyse / Saulius Rumbutis, Povilas Blaževičius, Giedrė Piličiauskienė — Žuvys Vilniaus pilyse / Giedrė Piličiauskienė, Povilas Blaževičius — Kaulo ir rago dirbiniai Vilniaus pilių komplekse / Heidi Luik — Mėsos ir žuvies vartojimo reikšmė Lietuvos didžiųjų kunigaikščių virtuvėje XV-XVII amžiaus pirmos pusės rašytinių šaltinių duomenimis / Neringa Dambrauskaitė — Laukiniai žvėrys Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės valdovo aplinkoje XIV-XVII amžiuje / Toma Zarankaitė-Margienė — Pabaigos žodis — Summary — Šaltiniai ir literatūra — Santrumpos — Iliustracijose panaudotų dirbinių saugojimo vieta ir sąvado numeris.
Keywords:
LT
Archeologiniai radiniai / Artefacts; Archeologiniai tyrinėjimai / Archaeological investigations; Gyvūnai; Gyvūnų liekanos; Kaulo/rago dirbiniai; Maistas; Pilys. Tvirtovės. Bastėjos / Castles. Bastions. Fortresses; Zooarcheologija.
EN
Animal remains; Animals; Bone/antler artefacts; Food; Zooarchaeology.
Summary / Abstract:

LTŠioje kolektyvinėje monografijoje, analizuojant pirminių šaltinių duomenis, siekiama geriau pažinti Vilniaus pilių gyventojų socialinę struktūrą ir reikšmingus kasdienybės dėmenis - supusią aplinką, higieninę situaciją, mitybos ypatumus, gyvulių auginimo specifiką, mėsos vartojimo įpročius, medžioklės reikšmę, medžiojamą fauną bei jos kelią iki pilies virtuvės stalo ir galiausiai - atliekų tvarkybą. Šešių mokslininkų komanda, nuodugniai ištyrusi Vilniaus pilių teritorijoje surinktą zooarcheologinės medžiagos kolekciją, kaulo bei rago dirbinius, taip pat istorinių šaltinių duomenis, atskleidžia naujus arba dar menkai žinotus faktus. Skaitytojas knygoje ras atsakymus į klausimus, kada Lietuvą pasiekė pirmieji kalakutai, triušiai ar karpiai, kokie šunys lydėjo valdovus medžioklėse, kaip keitėsi naminių gyvulių dydis ir kaina skirtingais istoriniais laikotarpiais, kodėl Lietuvoje gyvenusiais laukiniais arkliais nebuvo galima jodinėti, kas nutiko trims gyviems taurams, Lietuvos didžiojo kunigaikščio Jogailos siųstiems į Konstancą imperatoriui Zigmantui I, bei daugelį kitų mokslininkų bendruomenę ir plačiąją visuomenę turinčių sudominti istorijos detalių. [Anotacija knygoje]

ENSince prehistoric times, through to historical times, and to this day, the animal kingdom has been and still remains an essential part of everyday human subsistence. It is difficult to realize how many different areas of life were related to animals in the Middle Ages. We just have to remember the important role that horse, dog and cattle has played in human life. After all, we cannot imagine the histories of hunting and warfare, trade and farming without them. Speaking of various benefits and uses that the fauna provides, it is sufficient to mention just the most important ones: meat and eggs were consumed as food and fodder; bone and antler were used to make weapons and household utensils; leather and furs - to make footwear and clothing; from feathers, bristles and horse-hair writing implements, ropes brushes and many other things were produced. Looking at this array it is not surprising, that historical research of fauna is crucial for understanding the everyday human life in the past. It needs to be said that, until today, there was a great need for similar studies in Lithuania. Therefore, the archaeological and zooarchaeological material analysed in this monograph is an essential source for the study of human and fauna interrelation, revealing the dynamics of change and intensity of these processes. The most important source for understanding the everyday history of Lithuania, and thus the complex analysed in this work is the data retrieved during archaeological investigations, a situation quite contrary to Western European countries, where there is an abundance of written sources. Therefore, in order to thoroughly reveal the aforementioned spheres of everyday life, it is crucial to analyse comprehensively the archaeological and zooarchaeological data and the written sources which provide context to it.The Vilnius Castle and the Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania complex is unequivocally the most valuable archaeological monument, which provides exhaustive sources for the research of everyday history of medieval and early modern Lithuania. The earliest traces of human presence in this territory date to the 1st millenium ВС, and there is an increase in the number of artifacts and general indications of human activity in the period from 5th to 8th (9th) c. However, it is only from the second half of the 13th c. that the exsistence of a castle and town in the territory of the Vilnius castles, with human habitation there continuing to the present day, can be confirmed. The unique artifacts and ecofacts, remains of buildings, constructions of infrastructure and communication that were unearthed during the archaeological investigations have presented a rare opportunity to study the everyday life of the castles inhabitants: the grand dukes, dignitaries, nobles, clergy, soldiers, craftsmen, merchants and other citizens. The zooarchaeological data providing information on topics, such as the dwellers’ diets and habits, hygiene, the castle’s environment and waste control, the hunted fauna, antler and bone working etc., has until now been scarcely studied, even though the material of the Vilnius’ castles has already attracted the attention of major researchers and has been the subject of copious scientific and popular literature. In 2016, a team of six researchers was assembled on an initiative of the workers of the National Museum Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania (NM PGDL). Zooarchaeologist dr. Giedrė Piličiauskienė has undertaken the largest task of analysing the whole collection of mammal and fish bones, in total, up to 70 000 bones and their fragments.The collection of more than 3 600 bird bones and over a dozen of the discovered eggshell fragments was studied by ornithologist Saulius Rumbutis. The main stages of this research work were related to the identification of the material and documenting the observations on each bone fragment, including the identified animal species, skeleton bone, part of the skeleton, integrity, traces of processing, pathologies and etc. Once included into a database, this data can be further analysed and the age, sex and size of the animals as well as the nutritional value of the unearthed material can be determined. This is the most important data to be used as a starting point for studying the chronological and spatial distribution patterns and the change of species, taphonomic processes, nutritional aspect of the material, etc. The territory of the castles and the functions of the buildings, as well as the social and ethnic composition of the inhabitants and their living conditions were subject to change during the period under study. In light of this, the analysed zooarchaeological material was divided into five main periods. The first and earliest stage is associated with the fortified settlement dating to the Middle Iron Age, 5-9th c. The unevenly surviving cultural layers from this stage were found in the territory of the Vilnius Castles, at the top and at the foot of Gediminas’ hill. From them only a small number of animal bones was recovered, constituting 1% of the total assemblage. The second stage covers the period from the 3rd quarter of the 13lh c. until the middle of the 14th c. and represents the earliest phase of the castle. About 5% of the zooarchaeological material found in the surroundings of the castle’s wooden and masonry buildings, is ascribed to this period. [...]. [Extract, p. 280-281]

ISBN:
9786090700990; 9786090700983
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2022-01-12 21:18:09
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