Žinios ir naratyvas apie gimtąją kalbą: Kuršių nerijos kuršininkų atvejis

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Žinios ir naratyvas apie gimtąją kalbą: Kuršių nerijos kuršininkų atvejis
Alternative Title:
Knowledge and the narrative on the native language: the case of the courlanders of the Curonian Spit
Kuršininkų kalba; Geolektas; Sociolektas; Kalbos prestižas; Lauko tyrimai; Nykstanti kalba
Kursenieku language; Geolect; Sociolect; Linguistic projects; Fieldwork; Endangered language
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje analizuojama Kuršių nerijos kuršininkų kalbos situacija ir jos statusas mokslo bei pačių kalbos vartotojų požiūriu. Autorė kuršininkų kalbų laiko baltų kalba, kuri susiformavo kaip įvairių Kuršo tarmių geolektas ir buvo perėjusi į savarankiškos kalbos raidos stadijų. Dėl ilgalaikės kalbinės, geografinės, politinės atskirties nuo šios kalbos etninės tėvynės jos vartotojai gyveno nelygiavertės dvikalbystės sųlygomis. Fragmentiškos žinios apie gimtųjų kalbų ir savo etninę kilmę sudarė pagrindų kurtis įvairiems naratyvams, kurie prasiskverbdavo į viešųjų erdvę, o sparčiai menkėjantis kalbos prestižas buvo ne tik išorinis (dėl politinio spaudimo), bet ir vidinis (dėl atsisakymo vartoti) kalbos nuosmukio veiksnys. Straipsnyje pristatoma tiek mokslinė informacija apie kuršininkų kalbos statuso pokyčius, tiek pačių vartotojų autentiški vertinimai, liudijantys, kaip kintantis vartotojų požiūris į gimtųjų kalbų atsiliepia pačios kalbos gyvenimui, jos gyvybingumui ir ištyrimui. [Iš leidinio]

ENThis article presents an analysis of the situation regarding the endangered Kursenieku language of the Curonian Spits inhabitants. The Kursenieku language is considered as a Baltic language, or geolect, that formed on the spit among various other Courland dialects and progressed onto the stage of development as an independent language. Due to its long years of linguistic, geographical and political isolation from its ethnic homeland, this language existed in the 15th-20th centuries under the conditions of unequal bilingualism. The article presents both scientific information about the changes to the status of the Kursenieku language and also the authentic assessments of its speakers, testifying how the changing approach of speakers to their native language reflects on both the life and vitality of the language and its research. The results of the research showed that Courlanders have a superficial understanding of the emergence of their ethnic group on the Curonian Spit, while their lack of knowledge is supplemented from folkloric narratives. The prestige of the Kursenieku language in the eyes of its speakers had dropped during the inter-war years. The reason for this was the intensive revanchist German propaganda, and the inability of the Lithuanian government to resolve ethnic matters in the Klaipėda Region. German was not a prestigious language on the Curonian Spit in the inter-war years. Some fishermens families still used the Kursenieku language in 1919-1939, especially when communicating with the older generation and when parents spoke among themselves. At the same time, the number of families where parents spoke to their children in German, or children spoke German among themselves, increased. The Kursenieku language was also a sociolect, used during fishing. That is why men had a better grasp of this language than women before World War II.Even though a majority of the Courlanders on the northern end of the Curonian Spit knew three languages in the 20th century, most were bilingual, as in terms of use, Lithuanian was not considered a language of equal significance. The prestige of their native language in the consciousness of its users increased after World War II, in emigration. The reasons for this were nostalgia for their homeland and accepted way of life, and recognition of the danger their language faced under different social and political circumstances. Looking back with regret at the loss of their language, some of the respondents viewed the past from a different angle, and identified the following as culprits for the language’s death: cultural and education policies (prohibitions on speaking in public, the lack of a written form of their native language), the war and its outcomes (the dissolution of the community), and their own insufficient efforts to pass the language on to their children. Some children of the Courlanders, despite never learning the language, recognise the importance of their parents’ homeland and its cultural legacy, and become involved in cultural and research activities associated with the heritage of the Curonian Spit. Even though the users of the language mention the war and demographic processes arising from the postwar years as turning-points in the fate of their language, the origins of the Kursenieku language were placed under threat back in the inter-war years when under the bilingual conditions, their native language could not withstand competing against the socially-stronger language. Changes to the inner development of the language were unavoidable as its sphere of use was significantly narrowed down, means of communicative expression were no longer created using this language, and in time, it was forgotten as not being able to keep up with the demands of reality. [From the publication]

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2020-01-28 19:41:05
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