Dvaro sodybos pastatas povalušas : funkcija, forma ir tradicija

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Dvaro sodybos pastatas povalušas: funkcija, forma ir tradicija
Alternative Title:
Povalusha, a building of the manor estate: its function, form and tradition
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2017, t. 86/87, p. 149-165. (Iš)koduota istorija architektūroje
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Povalušas (povalusha); Dvarų sodybų architektūra; 16 amžius; 17 amžius; 18 amžius; 19 amžius; Tradicija ir forma; Etninė architektūra; Povalusha; Architecture of manor estates; 16th–19th centuries; Tradition and form; Ethnic architecture.
Architektūra / Architecture; Liaudies menas / Folk art; Povalušas (povalusha); Tradicija ir forma.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje dvarų sodybos pastato povalušo formų pasikartojimo pavyzdžiais skirtingų funkcijų pastatuose (lobynuose, lamusuose, svirnuose, salkose, rūkyklose) keturių šimtų metų laikotarpiu (nuo XVI a. antros pusės iki XX a. pradžios) pagrindžiamas tradicijos vaidmuo architektūrinių formų raidos procesuose. Straipsnio pradžioje tyrinėjama povalušo kilmė, pabaigoje – įtaka architektūrinių ir konstrukcinių detalių struktūrai. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe 16th–17th century buildings of Lithuanian manor estates did not survive. However, signs of some architectural forms typical of these buildings reached the time when they were visually recorded. One of such buildings, which first appeared in the period of formation of manor estates or even earlier, and whose forms were retained in other buildings until the early 20th century, was povalusha (повалушъ, подвалушъ, powałusz). This is how the building was called in the 16th–17th century inventories. The aim of this article is to reconstruct the function of the povalusha, its architectural appearance, and while tracing its visual interpretations in later buildings of different functions, to justify the importance of tradition for the preservation of form. In the architecture of ancient Rus’, a povalusha was a magnificent building of vertically oriented forms, or a sumptuous vaulted summer room in the upper part of the building, or, particularly in richer houses, a large representational room for receptions. According to Belarusian scholars, the inventory data of Lithuanian manors from the second half of the 16th century do not confirm the residential function of the povalusha, while the buildings referred to by this word of Slavic origin were used to keep expensive ammunition of a noblewarrior, and later, the manor’s valuables and documents. Povalushas were sumptuous, well-built and well-furnished buildings of compact vertically oriented forms that rested on piles, paklėčio or had two storeys (a building of the povalusha type can be seen in the fragment of the Medekšiai drawing).The cubic capacity of the building was expanded by porches – galleries that surrounded the main structure from several or all four sides. In the late 16th and 17th century, the function of the povalusha changed (it was used to house not only valuables, but also grain and household utensils). Their traditional form was retained. On the other hand, the unstable function allowed calling the structure of the povalusha type by other names – barn, treasury, lamus or salka. A barn (klėtis) was the generic name for a building meant for storage, but was more often used in reference to a storehouse for grain. Treasuries (skarbnica, skarbec) and lamuses took over the function of the 16th century povalusha. They were used to keep valuables and documents (the treasury of the Raudondvaris manor). Zygmunt Gloger indicates that in nobles’ manors they were called treasuries and were built of brick, and in less well-to-do manors, they were known as lamuses, were built of wood and had several stories. In the eighteenth-century inventories, the term povalusha disappeared. In the 18th–19th centuries, besides the frequent terms of barn, treasury and, somewhat more seldom, lamus, buildings of the povalusha type were also called salka. The Purvėnai manor estate in 1778 had three salkas of different function and decoration, but similar forms. According to Gloger, salka is the early name for lamus, or treasury, used in Poland. Thus, it is an equivalent of a building called povalusha in Lithuania.The need to have a building in the shape of the povalusha resulted in the emergence of another structure of non-traditional function in the traditional form – smokehouses. They became widespread in the late 18th and early 19th century, when heating systems changed and large chimneys were discarded in nobles’ houses. One of the smokehouse types was a two-tiered structure surrounded by a porch – gallery. A stove was heated in the lower tier, and meat was hung in the upper one. Finally, we should discuss the surviving constructional elements whose origin can be related to the early povalushas. In the construction of the barn roof, a ceiling that served as protection from thieves was used. It was a partition made from round blocks of wood, atop which the roof was built. Until today, it is called pavalas in ethnic sources (the barn of the Karveliškis estate, Molėtai district). The similarity of the words povalusha and pavalas can hardly be accidental. In Russian, the word повал (poval) defines the widening of the frame supporting the roof construction (ill.). In the Latvian Ethnographic Open Air Museum, a barn from the eastern part of Latvia containing the same construction is displayed. It is not difficult to notice that the forms of that barn are characteristic of povalushas. [From the publication]

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