XIII-XIV amžiaus Kernavės keramika

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Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
XIII-XIV amžiaus Kernavės keramika
Alternative Title:
Pottery in Kernavė from the 13th–14th centuries
In the Journal:
Archaeologia Lituana. 2016, t. 17, p. 112-141
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Apžiesta keramika; Kernavė; Puodininkystė; Viduramžiai; Žiesta keramika; Ceramic craft; Kernave; Kernavė; Middle Ages; The Middle Ages; Wheel-turned pottery.
Apžiesta keramika; Archeologiniai radiniai / Artefacts; Kernavė; Puodininkystė; Viduramžiai / Middle Ages; Žiesta keramika.
Ceramic craft; Kernave; Middle Ages; Wheel-turned pottery.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje analizuojama viduramžių Kernavės miesto XIII–XIV a. apžiestos keramikos kolekcija. Detaliai nagrinėjami buityje naudotų indų technologiniai, morfologiniai, puošybiniai požymiai, ieškoma galimos paskirties, erdvės ir chronologijos nulemtų reikšmingų bruožų. Apibendrinant būdingus požymius, išskiriamos stilistinės indų grupės. Joms priskiriamų indų ir jų fragmentų sklaidos analizė išryškina puodininkystės vaidmenį ir raidą viduramžiškoje ankstyvojo Lietuvos miesto visuomenėje. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe subject of this article is wheel-turned pottery, which makes up the absolute majority of Kernavė’s 13th–14th c. artifact collection. The main focus of the paper are the technological, morphological and ornamental features, as well as their chronological and spatial distribution. These vessels were made of local clay and tempered with crushed granite and sand. The walls of vessels were hand-made using the coil and strip technique and after that they were turned on a hand or foot operated potter’s wheel. The intensity of turning varies from the subtle surface smoothing to the partial forming of vessel. The pottery was fired in an uncontrolled environment, in unspecialized kilns and fireplaces. The manufacturing technology was changing slightly during the specified time period. From mid. 14th century, some wares were produced using finer infusions, and the strip building technique took over. Such wares were wheel-turned more thoroughly. Morphologically, these wares belong to an unspecialized category of different size of three-parted vessels. Overall proportions of wares from this category are rather similar, but they come in a variety of the upper part forms. The distribution of particular neck, lip and shoulder forms in contemporaneous locations may be attributed to the styles, skills and preferences of various craftsmen. The ornaments usually consist of wavelets and horizontal lines, while rollers, dash dots and similar patterns are more rare; they were combined according to the personal choices and stylistic preferences of the potter. In the midto- late 14th century, the appearance of technologically more advanced and morpologically more homogenous wares was followed by greater uniformity of ornamental variety; sometimes, ornaments were skipped altogether. [From the publication]Pottery is divided into relative functional groups according with vessel sizes: small, medium and large pots – in the ethnographical view, those would fulfill the roles of eating, crafting and storage. But since there are no major technological, morphological or ornamental differences, it can be said that those functions were not strictly set. Based on the lack of differences from everyday wares, the pottery that was found in burial sites is not classified as a separate group of ceremonial pottery. Ceremonial rites involved the same pottery that was used at home. All in all, 9 stylistic groups were designated according to the characteristics of pottery and its distribution in various complexes. Based on concentration, these groups were linked with explored homesteads. The appearance of pottery with more stable and unique styling is dated from mid. 14th century. The peculiarities of technological, morphological attributes and ornamentation of pottery and their dispersion in space and time provide some evidence about the development of the pottery as a craft. With the practice of pottery crafting at home for personal needs during the whole period, in the mid-to-late 14th century a different form of craftsmanship could have appeared, one that did not require specialized equipment or extensive resources. Pottery was bartered or traded in small amounts in an effort to get additional income. The trade between the regions was not developed, most of the wares are of local origins. The same wares were used in all the levels of society. [From the publication]

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2021-01-07 18:51:20
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