Žmogus ir metalas priešistorėje: žvilgančios bronzos trauka

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knyga / Book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Žmogus ir metalas priešistorėje: žvilgančios bronzos trauka
Alternative Title:
Man and metal in prehistory: attraction of shiny bronze
Publication Data:
Vilnius : "Diemedžio" leidykla, 2014
271 p.
Pratarmė — Įvadas — Bronzos amžiaus metalurgija — Kas yra metalurgija: sąvoka ir reikšmės — Ankstyvasis metalų laikotarpis: terminija ir chronologija — Metalo liejybos techninė terminija ir gamybos technologijos — Bronzos amžiaus metalo dirbinių technologijų tyrinėjimų metodai — Bronzos amžiaus metalo dirbinių technologijų tyrinėjimų istorija Rytų Baltijos jūros regione — Bronzos amžiaus metalo dirbinių ir jų liejimo technologijų tyrimai — Archeometalurginiai dirbinių tyrimai — Rytų Baltijos regiono metalo dirbinių cheminė sudėtis — Rytų Baltijos regiono švino izotopų analizė ir vario rūdos kilmės klausimas — Liejimo technologijos: kompiuterinė simuliacija — Ankstyvojo metalurgijos etapo liejimo technologijos: Atkraštinių ir Nortikėnų kovos kirvių kompiuterinė simuliacija — Vėlyvojo metalurgijos etapo liejimo technologijos: ietigalių ir įmovinių kirvių kompiuterinė simuliacija — Bronzos amžiaus metalurgija Rytų Baltijos jūros regione — Metalas kaip naujovė: Ankstyvasis metalurgijos etapas Rytų Baltijos jūros regione — Bronzinė liejimo forma iš Dovilų ir vietinės metalurgijos klausimas — Įvaldytas metalas: Vėlyvasis metalurgijos etapas Rytų Baltijos jūros regione — Vietinės metalurgijos suklestėjimas piliakalniuose — Narkūnų piliakalnis (Utenos r.) Rytų Baltijos regiono piliakalnių kontekste — Narkūnų piliakalnio techninė keramika — Narkūnų piliakalnio chronologija — Narkūnų piliakalnio metalo liejikų dirbtuvė — Amatininkai metalurgai Vidurio ir Pietryčių Europos tyrinėjimuose — Bronzos amžiaus metalurgų instrumentai Rytų Baltijos jūros regione — Metalurgijos intensyvumas ir reikšmė vėlyvajame metalurgijos etape — Žmogus ir metalas: tarp kasdienybės ir ritualo — Metalo dirbinių paskirtis ir kokybė — Metalo dirbinių deponavimas — Sulaužyti metalo dirbiniai ir jų interpretacija — Žmogus ir metalas: už horizonto ribų —Šernų statulėlės istorija — Meliaro tipo kirvių fenomenas — Gintaras – pagrindinis mainų ekvivalentas? — Žvelgiant į Rytus: Seimos-Turbino fenomeno atspindžiai Rytų Baltijos jūros regione — Žmogus ir metalas: žvilgančios bronzos trauka — Bronzos amžiaus visuomenės tyrinėjimai Rytų Baltijos regione — Metalo reikšmė bronzos amžiaus visuomenėje — „Už degančią ugnį šviesesnis“: metalas – prestižo atspindys — Išvados — Šaltiniai ir literatūra — Man and metal in prehistory: attraction of shiny bronze — Priedai.
Rytų Baltijos regionas; bronzos amžius; metalurgijos centrai; lobiai; kapinynas; metalinės įkapės; metalo technologijos; metalurgija
Eastern Baltic Region; bronze age; metallurgic centers; treasures; necropolis; metallic shroud; metallic technologies; metallurgy
Summary / Abstract:

ENThis book analyses the significance of metallurgy as a cultural and social phenomenon for Bronze-Age communities in the eastern Baltic region. The book's title shows that people, the most important factor in all innovations and changes, are responsible for all technological processes. Thus our main attention will focus on experimental and technological studies of human familiarity with metals. The typology and chronology of metal artefacts and archaeological cultures will take second place here. Taking account of established academic tradition, the region selected for our reserach covers five modern states, namely the Kaliningrad District of the Russian Federation, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Belarus. This territorial selection was determined first and foremost by the geography of the afore-mentioned countries and the status quo of Bronze Age studies. [...] Chapter I. 1 deals with the concept and significance of metallurgy, stressing that metallurgy covers a broad range of past human activities from the search for raw materials to the deposition of metal artefacts. Prehistoric archaeo-metallurgy dealt not only with the treatment of raw materials and the specifics of artefact production but also with the closely associated issues of exchange, trade, function, the social significance of artefacts and other matters. The relationship between people and ores and metal production becomes clearer and we see the same approaches to metals as in Europa. In this book this period is called the late stage of metallurgy. approaches to metals as in Europa. In this book this period is called the late stage of metallurgy. Chapter I. 2 deals with the boundaries of the early metals' period and chronology. We deal with the Bronze Age as a separate period of prehistory covering Montelius periods I-VI. [...]Although the first metal artefacts appeared in the region at the end of the third millennium B.C., the beginning of the Bronze Age is dated to around 1800 B.C. when classic tin-bronze (Cu-90%, Sn-10%) artefacts began to spread throughout the continent. At this time agricultural changes are noticeable in Northern Europe and the eastern Baltic region alike. In chapters I. 3-1. 5 we study the terminology of metal moulding, the history and methods of technological research in the Baltic States. The results are discussed in chapter II. The research is based on interdisciplinary methods. To establish the chemical composition of artefacts and the formation of chemical groups we used the X-ray flourescence method. We examined 40 metal artefacts. [...] Chapters II. 2. 1 ans II. 2. 2. present the results of computer simulations. This research is based on experiments and allows us to reconstruct Bronze Age casting technology and the quality of artefacts produced at that time. It appears that, maintaining the relevant parameters, the manufacture of both early and late artefact types was possible, although casting in bronze moulds required certain training and professionalism. Bronze artefacts in the eastern Baltic sea region were produced in double casting clay moulds (the casting seams are visible) or according to cire perdu techniques and this was the favoured way to cast metals. [...] Chapter III. 1. 2 discusses the use and significance of this double casting mould. It was used to make the so-called Klaipeda-type flanged axes with trapezoid blades, which are associated often with very similar bronze palstave axes. It is obvious that these axes should be distinguished from one another, but they are dated to the same period, Montelius II-early Montelius III (BB2-BD). [...] Chapter III. 2 deals with the late metallurgical stage where archaeological data can be used to discover the casting technologies employed in the eastern Baltic region.From Period IV of the Bronze Age here, as indeed throughout Europe, traces of metal casting can be found in hill-forts, many of which have defence works. Evidence of metal working has been discovered in almost thirty hill-forts. The communities living in the fortified settlements of Kivutkals and Brikuli in Latvia and the people of the so-called Asva group of settlements on Saarema Island in Estonia (Asva, Ridala, Iru and Kaali) were leaders in metal production. [...] Chapter IV deals with everyday and ritual relationship between people and metal. We ask about the use of metal artefacts, their durability and purposes. We may confidently say that the production technologies and quality of eastern Baltic bronze [artefacts did not differ from those in neighbouring i regions. We can clearly see, especially in the Late Bronze Age that technical skills had been mastered in communities within this region. The quality of objects varied according to situations and was an individual matter. Exterior marks clearly show that eastern Baltic bronze artefacts had a practical significance. [...] Chapter V analyses the mutual communication of Bronze-age communities and their long-distance connections. Archaeological finds reflect the importance of the Baltic Sea as a window into the wider world at that time. A special note gives the small Hittite figurine found in Šernai forest (Klaipėda District) controversially regarded in archaeological studies. After it was discovered that the figurine was made of bronze its authenticity became more convincing. Chapter VI deals with the significance of metal in Bronze Age society. Study of Bronze Age societies is something completely new in Baltic archaeology. There is a clear tendency to define Bronze Age societies on the basis of various theories, that is to ascribe them to one category or another. [From the publication]

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2021-01-25 17:57:05
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