Miesto rotušė Apšvietos epochoje : architektūros aspektas

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Miesto rotušė Apšvietos epochoje: architektūros aspektas
Alternative Title:
Town hall in the Age of Enlightenment: architectural aspect
In the Book:
Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė: tarp tradicijų ir naujovių / sudarytoja Ramunė Šmigelskytė-Stukienė. Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos instituto leidykla, 2014. P. 260-280. (XVIII amžiaus studijos ; 1)
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje mėginama identifikuoti Apšvietos laikotarpiu statytų ir atnaujintų rotušių architektūros specifiką. Plačiau aptariama Vilniaus rotušė, kuri nagrinėjama platesniame rotušių projektavimo XVIII a. antrojoje pusėje kontekste. Pagrindžiama, jog antikinės šventyklos kompozicija paremta Lauryno Gucevičiaus (Wawrzyniec Guciewicz) perprojektuota rotušė buvo vienas moderniausių XVIII a. Europos neoklasicizmo sprendimų - novatoriškiausią visuomeninės paskirties pastato interpretacija, kuri prisidėjo formuojant Vilniaus kaip modernaus miesto įvaizdį. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe town hall is a municipal building used for assemblies and to house the offices of local government. This type of building was the dominant aspect of urban topography throughout Europe from the 12th to the 18th c. Three common, although not universal, features of the town hall are the incorporation of a large hall, the occupation of a prominent site in, or near, the center of the city and a tower which had the symbolic meaning of civic power and independence as well as practical significance. Town halls provide a symbolic and ceremonial focus of local urban identity. As such they reflect not only the differing status of individual towns, but also the radical changes over the centuries in urban organization and the varied patterns of municipal freedom in different countries. It could seem that since the middle of the 18th century when the process of industrialization and urbanization was initiated, multifunctional town halls began to lose their importance and were replaced by new types of administrative, political and cultural institutions. The new halls were the way for modern towns to construct a local identity. In the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 18th c. (up to the 1776, when many towns lost their privilege of self-government) some important town halls were renovated (Kaunas, Mogilev, Minsk, Witebsk, Semiatycze) and new ones were built. Their forms illustrate the tough relation between architecture and ideology. When the ideas of the Enlightenment began to spread in the mid-18th century, its general aims seemed clear enough.to put an end to Baroque excess and the personalised expressions of power. As the shop window of ideology, it fell to architecture to give this visible expression. The knowledge of Greek and Roman antiquity, and of its political thought, its literature, and architecture were rediscovered, setting off a wave of enthusiasm, which gripped Europe. Neoclassicism became the flag-bearer for republican ideology. Architecture had to demonstrate the pride and self-confidence of a democratic society. This trend is clearly visible in the rebuilding of Vilnius town hall by Laurynas Gucevičius (Wawrzyniec Gucewicz) (completed in 1799). The Virginia State Capitol (completed in 1796) by Thomas Jefferson was very similar to the Vilnius town hall. Both architects were brought into contact with French architecture. The radical and even drastic restructuring of the Vilnius town hall from the ideological point of view should be treated as very modern, though it was perceived rather negatively in the 19th century from the point of view of historicism (Michał Baliński, Józef Ignacy Kraszewski). The idea to apply the structure of antique sanctuary to the function of town hall was widely adopted in the 19th century in Great Britain as well as in the United States. In the same century only a few town halls (Dąbie, Klodawa, Kole, Konin, Lowicz, Prienai, Marijampolė, Kalvary) were build in the territory of the Polish Kingdom (former territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). Their architecture followed the concept of functionalism; the commercial function was emphasized. [From the publication]

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2022-01-24 12:49:37
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