Grįžtamoji migracija: protų susigrąžinimas ir prisitaikymo galimybės Lietuvoje

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Grįžtamoji migracija: protų susigrąžinimas ir prisitaikymo galimybės Lietuvoje
Alternative Title:
Return migration: brain gain and possibilities of adaptation in Lithuania
In the Journal:
Grupės ir aplinkos. 2012, 3, p. 43-72
Keywords:
LT
Migracija / Migration.
Summary / Abstract:

LTMigracijos procesų tyrinėtojai dažniausiai susitelkia ties išvykstančiųjų gyventi į užsienio šalis tyrimais, o į Tėvynę grįžusių asmenų prisitaikymas ir motyvacija likti gyventi bei dirbti Lietuvoje sulaukia mažiau dėmesio. Žinant, su kokiomis problemomis susiduria nusprendusieji grįžti į kilmės šalis, galima būtų tobulinti ir išplėsti grįžtamajai migracijai skatinti skirtas priemones, suprasti, kaip geriau panaudoti grįžusiųjų potencialą. Šiame straipsnyje analizuojamas prisitaikymo kilmės šalyje procesas – į Lietuvą grįžusių lietuvių galimybės prisitaikyti ir motyvacija pasilikti gyventi Lietuvoje. Tyrinėjama, į kokias aplinkas patenka parvykę asmenys, ar ir kaip jiems pavyksta įsitvirtinti bei panaudoti sukauptą žmogiškąjį kapitalą, su kokiomis problemomis susiduriama. Straipsnis grindžiamas autorės atlikto kokybinio tyrimo duomenimis. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Grįžtamoji migracija; Migracija; Migracija, grįžtamoji migracija, prisitaikymas, žmogiškasis kapitalas; Prisitaikymas; Žmogiškasis kapitalas; Adaptation; Human capital; Migration; Return migration.

ENThe article analyzes return migration to Lithuania, the returnees’ possibilities of adaptation, and their motivations to remain in the country. The aim is to reveal and evaluate person’s motivation to return and possibilities of adaptation. The object of this work is persons who have returned to Lithuania after living a substantial amount of time abroad, who are trying to use their accumulated experience in their homeland. The article analysis is based on original empirical research on the adaptation processes of returnees to Lithuania, employing the half-structured interview method. Dynamic systems access was used organizing the questionnaire and analysis of the data which offers to structure the data into the environment–status–expression variables and find their interactions. The research was carried out in 2011–2012 by interviewing 8 respondents. Analysis of the data focuses on the mental state of persons who have decided to return and the environmental factors influencing them. There are many different reasons why it is difficult for returnees to integrate in their home countries: it may be deficient knowledge of the language, cultural differences, social alienation, or discrimination. The study reveals the main reasons determining the decision to return to live in Lithuania and discusses factors which help or hinder the returnees to successfully establish themselves and use their accumulated human capital in their homeland. Rapidly changing society in Lithuania, possibility of a better quality of life, including the ability to work an intellectual work, accessible social services, cultural life and nature led to the return. Especially important is the environment of the family, and other relatives living in Lithuania.Decision to return mainly was based on importance of social contacts. These relationships have a greater effect on return than economic reasons. Significant role is dedicated to preserve those relations in exile. The article revealed problems of returnees’ which interfere to fit in. Those problems arise due to differences of social environment in exile as well as in homeland. Returnees’ are unable to evaluate those differences because of obtained new cultural experience. The process of remigration is not easy, sometimes even harder than emigration, because re-emigrants do not expect possible difficulties and do not prepare for them. Re-emigrants, feeling social and cultural difference, attitude declared in media, lack of sense of community in Lithuania, create new and original groups or communities consisted from persons returned to Lithuania. They spend their free time together and participate in various community activities. One of the factors of return migration – possibility to adjust work experience gained abroad. The opportunity to work the job, which corresponds qualifications of their work, and the usage of knowledge, accumulated in exile, is often more important than the salary differences. [From the publication]

ISSN:
2029-4182
Related Publications:
Permalink:
https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/58654
Updated:
2020-12-11 21:32:39
Metrics:
Views: 35    Downloads: 3
Export: