Po gailestingosios Dievo Motinos skraiste: pilietinis sakralinio vaizdinio aspektas

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Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Po gailestingosios Dievo Motinos skraiste: pilietinis sakralinio vaizdinio aspektas
Alternative Title:
Under the mantle of the Merciful Mother: a civic aspect of the sacral image
In the Journal:
Kultūrologija [Culturology]. 2002, t. 9, p. 94-109, 456-457
Apsiaustas; Dievo Motina; Pilietinis aspektas; Sakralinis menas; Sakralinė dailė, ikonografija, Mater Miscricordiac, Švč. Dievo Motinos skraistė; Skraistė.
Civil dimension; Mantle; Mother of God; Sacral art; Sacred art, iconography, Miscricordiac mater, mantle of the Mother of God; Wraps.
Summary / Abstract:

ENOne of the earliest media for the representation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Mater Misericordiae iconographic type (the Mother of God with pilgrims clung together under her cloak), beginning from its Roman origin was always associated with the symbolics of guardianship of the state, sovereign, and citizen. This iconographic type and its accompanying image spread in medieval West and Central Europe without loosing this civic aspect and used to be greatly popular in the times of general disasters (epidemics, wars, famine). This article analyses the structure of the image and a shift of its components in the context of transformations suffered by the society. The second objective of the article is to raise a question why the Mater Misericordiae iconographic type, not propagated by the Western Church since the 16th century, gained a widespread popularity in Lithuanian monastery art only in the period between the 17th and 18th centuries, when a newer, post-trident schemes for the representation of the Merciful Mother of God dominated the scene. An attempt is made to present some prerequisites for the solution of the issue and to formulate a working hypothesis. Regardless of the hypothesis formulated by Mieczysław Gębarowicz on the basis of the tradition of using the nameAT/n/ in Poland, the article takes into account a local and historical transformation of the Merciful Mother's image in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The texts of original religious songs by Pranciškus Srubauskis serve for the analysis of mentality in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the period between the 17th and 18th centuries. They witness the estimation of the inner discord of society, the weakness of the stale and the lingering outer threat of its fall on equal grounds with epidemics and calamities.It is evident that the protection of the Mother of God in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 17th century was the only hope for man to survive, likewise in Western Europe during the time of medieval outbreak of plague. The concentration of laymen and monks under the Mother's "wings", the ideas of "folk childishness" and "poverty" were in tunc with the texts of religious songs and were visually featured in painting. The images based on this iconographic type increased in number before the fall of the self-dependence of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the end of the 18th century. The epoch of French revolution and T. Kościuszko witnessed the emergence of a general concern for the conception of ideological solidarity of citizens. It paradoxically conformed to a symbolic liturgical image of the Mother, equally gracious to everybody. A hope for unity to return to life rested in Mary's radiating love and guardianship. It was the archaic representation scheme of Mater Misericonliae that suited topical aspects of traditional images best of all. In Lithuanian art, the different local versions of this scheme were spreading in the monasteries of Carmelites, Dominicans and Jesuits, and, in the 19th century, in religious brotherhoods. The iconographic type has acquired some local shades due to the interaction with the Orthodox images of Pokrov, alongside with a specific expansion of a religious poetic image (e.g. mantle - a metaphor of the wings). [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 11:08:44
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