Dvaro, sentikių ir "amžinųjų činšininkų" santykiai žemės dalybose XIX a. II pusėje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Dvaro, sentikių ir "amžinųjų činšininkų" santykiai žemės dalybose XIX a. II pusėje
Alternative Title:
Relations of the manor, old believers and "eternal tenants" in the division of land in the second half of the 19th century
In the Journal:
Lituanistica. 2015, Nr. 2, p. 87-101
1795-1915. Lietuva Rusijos imperijos sudėtyje.
Summary / Abstract:

LTŠiuo straipsniu baigiamos gvildenti po baudžiavinio dvaro ir bajorų žemvaldžių žemę naudojusių gyventojų grupių atskyrimo nuo dvaro problemos. Aptariami veiksniai, lėmę imperijos valdžios politiką Vakarų gubernijų dvarų žemės nuomininkų atžvilgiu, valdžios pastangos reguliuoti dvarų savininkų, sentikių ir „amžinųjų činšininkų“ santykius atsižvelgiant į tautinį, politinį ir teisinį aspektus. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Agrariniai santykiai; Amžinieji činšininkai; Bajorai; Emfiteuzė; Lietuvos dvarai; Sentikiai; Socialinė politika; Tautinė politika; Agrarian relations; Emphyteusis; Lithaunian manors; Lithuanian manors; National politics; Noblemen; Old believers; Social politics.

ENThe time after serfdom for Lithuanian noble landowners became a challenge not only due to the political, social, cultural and material losses. They had to defend the prerogative of the class of the nobles – the right to private property. The fact that the imperial government banned the nobility of Polish origin from increasing their holdings by simply acquiring land was only part of the restrictions. The distribution of land to former serfs caused unsound expectations of the other inhabitants of the estates. The free people, the Old Believers and eternal tenants demanded the land of the estates. Even in the times of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania the tradition of land lease developed, based on consensus: the land for work, rent and obligation. It became a serious obstacle for the estate of the nobility on the way to modernization and the tenant of the land – the tool of the manipulations of the imperial government. On the other hand, the empire could not release from the village the large mass of rural people who make a living from agriculture, because the city was not able to accept them and the government could not offer a more serious alternative than private land ownership. The State Land Fund was too small if one wished to restructure land ownership in the Western Provinces and to destroy the dominance of the Polish element in it.The imperial government created a situation in which the estate did not have the leverage to turn away uncomfortable tenant farmers, who not only paid rent but were also engaged as potential owners of the estate owners’ land. The authorities converted the Old Believers by force into tenants of the land estates. It took into account their loyalty to the Empire, as shown during the 1863–1864 revolt, forbade them to leave the estates, and later applied to them an open-end lease, unrepresentative of the Russian legal system. Most of the eternal tenants lived on private land in cities and towns. There were few of them in the estates of the nobility, but here the imperial government legally established emphyteusis (in Latin emphyteusis). The eternal tenants could remain on the land of the estates if they proved their legal status. The only way to settle peacefully the question of the separation of the estate and the forced tenants was the voluntary transfer of part of the property of the noble landowners to the farmers using it. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 13:58:31
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