Kova dėl žemės: dvaro ir laisvųjų žmonių santykiai sprendžiant žemės nuosavybės klausimą XIX a. II pusėje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Kova dėl žemės: dvaro ir laisvųjų žmonių santykiai sprendžiant žemės nuosavybės klausimą XIX a. II pusėje
Alternative Title:
Struggle for land: the relations of the manor and free people resolving questions of land ownership in the 2nd half of the 19th century
In the Journal:
Lituanistica. 2015, Nr. 1, p. 2-21
Agrarinė politika; Agrarinė visuoemnė; Baudžiavos panaikinimas; Dvarininkas; Kova dėl žemės; Laisvasis žmogus; Lietuva; Priverstinė nuoma.
Abolition of serfdom; Agrarian policy; Agrarian society; Binding lease; Free people; Landlord; Landowner; Lithuania; Struggle for land.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje gilinamasi į stambių dvarų savininkų ir laikinųjų žmonių, nuomojusių dvarų žemę, santykius po baudžiavos panaikinimo. Aptariama šiuos santykius reguliavusi imperijos valdžios politika, dvarų savininkų ir laisvųjų žmonių laikysena atsižvelgiant į luominės visuomenės socialinės struktūros neišbaigtumą, komplikuotą valdinių socialinę identifikaciją, privačios nuosavybės neliečiamumo sampratą. Straipsnyje aptariama bajorų žemvaldžių situacija XIX a. antrojoje pusėje, kurią galima apibūdinti kaip žemėvaldos krizę, ir mėginimai ją įveikti taikiomis priemonėmis. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe article discusses the relations of the owners of large manors and free people, renting the manor’s land after the abolition of serfdom. Most of the free people lived in manors of the Kaunas Province (Samogitia and the district of Panevėžys) and the Trakai district of the Vilnius Province. The estate had no benefit from the free people, demanding land for almost nothing. Free people were not satisfied with the status of tenants, from which they were setting themselves free in various ways. Just as the former serfs, they wanted the land of the estates and sought economic self-sufficiency. The unsuitable identification of free people and the inability of the imperial government to assess the risks, arising from constrained social relations, strengthened the confrontation of the manor and the free people. The struggle for land of Lithuania’s manor and free people showed the unsuccessful modernization of the agrarian society. This battle highlighted the situation of the after serfdom estate into which it fell due to the miscommunication of the government, landowners and villages. The owners of the large estates, after redeploying the social structure of the population of the estates, programmed the hostile relations between the village and estate. In regard to the free people the authorities applied inconsistent policies. They gave the landlords, who proposed the stabilization of relationships through a longterm binding lease agreement and the idea of free contract, for the implementation of which they delayed the creation of legal and financial instruments, the decision of the solution for the problem of the estate and free people. The owners of large estates and the government did not evaluate the determination of the peasants to get land, provoking their resistance, while the legal measures to affect the free people were ineffective. In this situation, the owners of large estates took up the position of the defense of private property.It was not passive, but fit within the framework of the law. The disputes with the free people lasting decades rarely ended in the stabilization of relationships. For this reason, the landlords did not lose their land, but could not use it in an economically favourable way. The land, which had to be given away to some of the free people, slightly reduced the land ownership of the landlords. The consent of the nobles to sell land to insubordinate tenants at lower than the market price and applying state credit meant a certain compromise, for which the peasants had to pay. [From the publication]

0235-716X; 2424-4716
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2018-12-17 13:58:12
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