Skuodo krašto etninis instrumentinis muzikavimas XX amžiuje

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Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Skuodo krašto etninis instrumentinis muzikavimas XX amžiuje
Alternative Title:
Ethnic instrumental music in the 20th century regions of Skuodas
In the Journal:
Res humanitariae. 2013, t. 13, p. 219-245
19 amžius; Skuodas; Lietuva (Lithuania); Muzika / Music.
Summary / Abstract:

LTEtninė instrumentinė muzika Lietuvoje pradėta rinkti ir tyrinėti XIX a. viduryje. Straipsnyje nagrinėjama 1987 m. pirmojoje etninėje instrumentinėje ekspedicijoje Skuodo krašte užrašyta medžiaga, surinktos žinios apie XX a. liaudies muzikantus, jų grotą muziką bei muzikos instrumentus. Prisimenamas garsiausias šio krašto kanklininkas, liaudies menininkas Pranas Dargis. Bendrauta su 36 pateikėjais, iš kurių 16 griežė dumpliniais, 11 smuikais, likusieji – pučiamaisiais ir kitais instrumentais. Skuodo krašte gyvavo trys pagrindiniai ansamblių tipai: styginiai ansambliai, dūdų orkestrai ir mišrūs ansambliai. Etninio instrumentinio muzikavimo tradicijos, pasikeitus šokių madai, beveik nutrūko XX a. antrojoje pusėje ir praeito amžiaus pabaigoje vos ruseno. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Etninis instrumentinis muzikavimas; Liaudies muzikantai; Etninė muzika; Tradiciniai ansambliai; Smuikai; Ethnic instrumental music-making; Ethnic music; Folk musicians; Traditional ensembles; Violin.

ENThe data obtained from the informants indicate that making music, which was highly popular in the regions of Skuodas at the beginning of the 20th century, is a very old tradition. Numerous folk violinists, bellow instrument players and wind musicians had still remained in regions of Skuodas during the expedition. Three major types of ensembles that existed in the regions of Skuodas could be distinguished: string ensembles, brass bands and mixed ensembles. The research results indicate that stringed instruments and string ensembles were the oldest in the regions of Skuodas. Ensembles consisted of three-five to twelve people who played the following instruments: the violin, the guitar, the mandolin, the balalaika and the folk bass, or the bassetto (called "basedla"). Such ensembles were gradually displaced by brass bands. Mixed ensembles of numerous different compositions also used to exist in the region. They played melodic instruments (the violin), harmonic (the concertina or the bandoneon) and rhythmic ones (the folk bass and drums). After wind instruments gained popularity, pipes were also included in the composition of aforementioned mixed ensembles. The object of research: Ethnic instrumental music in the regions of Skuodas. The goal of the research: Analyze and summarize ethnic instrumental music on the first ethnoinstrumental expedition data in Skuodas region. The objectives of research: review in the written sources and researches published data on ethnic instrumental music; determine what musical instruments played Skuodas folk musicians; instruments prevalence; ensembles composition; performed repertoire; discussing some of the traditional aspects of the musician phenomenon. The methods applied: analytic, comparative, resumptive.Out of the former vast number of instrumental ensembles, just several brass bands and ensembles of unstable composition had remained in the region at the end of the 20th century. Ensemble-type playing, as well as solo-type music-making discontinued following the surge of a new trend, i.e., dancing. In the regions of Skuodas, traditional music-making started to sag in approximately 1965-1970, when folk musicians achieved a mature age. Expedition results indicate that the musicians' repertoire mostly consisted of dances and marches. Accompanying folk songs was a rare phenomenon, except for the kanklės (Lithuanian traditional zither). In the region described here, music accompanying dances brought from foreign lands was predominant, like in the remaining part of Lithuania, although music of ethnic Lithuanian dances still occupied a vast part in folk musicians' repertoire. Next to dances and marches, brass bands used to play mournful and religious tunes. The repertoire used to change together with the changes that dances underwent. It was not difficult for folk musicians to take over and learn the said music The old musicians mostly used to learn musical compositions aurally; only brass band musicians would play from notes. Quite a number of the compositions played were learned from radio or television. This way, the repertoire of amateur countryside bands would gradually become unified. Folk musicians also experienced great influence of the music they used to hear, as they started to play the highly monotonous repertoire of countryside bands. In the region analysed here, traditions of ethnic instrumental music making almost became extinct during the second half of the 20th century and were barely alive at the end of the century. [...].

1822-7708; 2538-922X
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2020-09-28 13:28:25
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