Susitikimai su Čiurlioniu egzilyje: tautiškumo refleksijos ir muzikinės raiškos galimybės (1911-1991)

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Susitikimai su Čiurlioniu egzilyje: tautiškumo refleksijos ir muzikinės raiškos galimybės (1911-1991)
Alternative Title:
Meetings with Čiurlionis in exile: reflections on nationality and possibilities of musical expression (1911-1991)
Keywords:
LT
Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis; Egzodas; Jungtinės Amerikos Valstijos; Spauda; Koncertai.
EN
Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis; Exodus; United States of America; Press; Concerts.
Summary / Abstract:

LTLietuvių emigrantai, atsidūrę daugiakulturėje ir svetimkalbėje aplinkoje, visomis išgalėmis stengėsi puoselėti etninę savimonę ir tautinę tapatybę. Nesenkamu lietuvybės šaltiniu jiems tapo Lietuvos menininkų, tarp jų ir Čiurlionio, kultūrinis paveldas. Šio straipsnio tikslas - aptarti Čiurlionio vietą egzodo lietuvių kultūrinėje panoramoje: išsiaiškinti, kaip ir kokiu būdu formavosi šio menininko įvaizdis, kaip buvo vertinama jo kūryba, kokie jo kūriniai dažniausiai skambėdavo viešose erdvėse. Tyrimo metodai - išeivijos periodinės spaudos, mokslinių darbų, garso įrašų ir koncertinio repertuaro analizė, chronologinė menotyrinės minties seka, žanrinis Čiurlionio darbų recepcijos apibendrinimas muzikos kalbos ir tautinio savitumo požiūriu, lyginamieji lietuvių kompozitorių muzikos sklaidos Amerikoje vertinimai. [Iš leidinio]

ENLithuanian emigrants became gradually aware of Čiurlionis. The first news of him appeared in the Lithuanian press of the USA immediately after his death; however, his compositions were never performed in America before the Second World War, except for several songs for choir. The main reason was the lack of printed works and the shortage of professional musicians. His birth or death anniversaries were commemorated by short review-type items of individual authors. However, the said items played a significant educational role by emphasizing the artist's uniqueness in synthesizing the principles of painting and music, by discussing his emotional attitude, and by special appreciation of his bringing out the typical traits of the Lithuanian national character. More intensive spread of Čiurlionis' music started after Second World War in the camps of war refugees in Germany and the continent of America where the major part of the Lithuanian musical intelligentsia found shelter. A folk art ensemble under the leadership of Alfonsas Mikulskis, named after Čiurlionis while still in Lithuania, considered it to be their duty to popularize choral pieces of the composer. Contributions to the promotion of Čiurlionis' piano compositions were made by pianists Vytautas Bacevičius, Vladas Jakubėnas, Aldona Kepalaitė, Andrius Kuprevičius, Manigirdas Motekaitis, Aleksas Mrozinskas, Antanas Smetona, and Vytautas Smetona. On the initiative of the conductors Jeronimas Kačinskas and Vytautas Marijošius, Čiurlionis' symphonic poems In the Forest and The Sea were performed in the USA; due to them, Americans also started taking interest in the composer. However, due to the shortage of printed scores and competent performers, Čiurlionis' music was heard infrequently: more of it could be heard in the years of his anniversaries.The gap was partly stopped by music critics (Vytautas Bacevičius, Vladas Jakubėnas, and Juozas Žilevičius), art critics (Stasys Goštautas, Juozas Pivoriūnas, Audrius Plioplys, and Romas Viesulas), culture activists (Leonardas Andriekus and Paulius Jurkus), and publishers of the periodicals of Aidai, Draugas, Lituanus, and Muzikos žinios who would devote not just single articles, but special issues of journals to Čiurlionis' birth and death anniversaries (1961, 1966, 1975,1991). The latter published the articles of both Lithuanians and authors of other nationalities (Andrea Botto, Viacheslav Ivanov, George Hanfmann, Raymond F. Piper, and Aleksis Rannit). Significant contributions to the studies of the life and artistic activity of Čiurlionis were made by Stasys Yla who wrote a monograph on the artist (1983) and Vytautas Strolia who compiled a detailed discography of his recordings made all over the world (2001). In terms of their quality and quantity, the works of art critics much exceeded musicological insights. The process was greatly influenced by the Gallery of Čiurlionis, opened in Chicago in 1957, that held exhibitions and got together emigrant artists. The spread of Čiurlionis' art in emigration was increasing in proportion to the increase of the interest in his art in Lithuania and his international recognition. Reflections on nationality were stronger than possibilities of musical expression; therefore Čiurlionis in emigration gradually started acquiring the traits of a mystical national hero. His personality was related to the extolling of Lithuanian creative powers and the ideology of the national movement. The spread of Čiurlionis' art in exile greatly effected the formation of the modern identity of a Lithuanian emigration and the development of the concept of statehood. In the years of Soviet occupation, the name of Čiurlionis became a symbol of the unity of the nation and its freedom. [From the publication]

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2020-09-17 08:48:32
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