Etnologijos institutas sovietmečio Lietuvoje mokslo politikos ir ideologijos kontekste

Direct Link:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Etnologijos institutas sovietmečio Lietuvoje mokslo politikos ir ideologijos kontekste
Alternative Title:
Institute of Ethnology in Soviet lithuania in the context of science policy and ideology
In the Journal:
Lietuvos etnologija. 2011, 11 (20), p. 125-142
LDB Open.
Etnologija; Etnologijos institutas; Istoriografija; Mokslininkai; Mokslų Akademija; Muziejus; Sovietinė Lietuva; Sovietinė okupacija.
Academy of Sciences; Ethnology; Historiography; Institute of Ethnology; Museum; Scientists; Soviet Lithuania; Soviet occupation.
Summary / Abstract:

LTLietuvos TSR mokslų akademijos Etnologijos instituto įkūrimas 1941 m. straipsnyje pateiktas kaip sovietinės okupacinės valdžios inspiruotas jos mokslo politikos žingsnis siekiant daryti ideologinę įtaką Lietuvos visuomenei. Sugretinama etnologijos mokslo padėtis Sovietų Sąjungoje, kaimyninėse šalyse ir Lietuvoje Antrojo pasaulinio karo išvakarėse bei pirmosios sovietinės okupacijos metais. Straipsnio tikslas: naudojant naujus Lietuvos mokslų akademijos archyvo duomenis aptarti XX a. pirmojoje pusėje susiklosčiusią Lietuvoje tradicinę etnologijos sampratą, sugretinti ją su etnologijos mokslo padėtimi SSRS ir apžvelgti Etnologijos instituto įkūrimą ir veiklą bei jos aplinkybes pirmosios sovietinės okupacijos metais. [Iš leidinio]

ENArticle analyses the problem of coexistence and opposition between the occupation authorities and scientific officers in the occupied country. The circumstances of establishing the Institute of Ethnology in Lithuania in 1941 and its activities are viewed as the attempt of the Soviet occupation authorities to ideologically influence the society via the politics of science and the efforts of the society to make use of the Soviet rhetoric in order to sustain the local scholarly tradition important to the nation's culture. The article is based on the unpublished historic sources from the archive of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences and other data. The establishment of the Institute of Ethnology of the Lithuanian SSR Academy of Sciences and its short-term existence was related to the participants of World War II, the countries that occupied Lithuania – the Soviet Union and Germany. The Soviet period is still veiled in the historiography of ethnology. It was politically unacceptable to speak about the activities of the Institute in the Soviet times as a number of prominent scholars who worked there had emigrated. Besides, as of 1937 ethnology was no longer referred to as science in the USSR. Biographies of repatriated ethnologists contained records of their work in the institutions of independent Lithuania evading the fact that in the Soviet times those were incorporated into the Institute of Ethnology.The formation of ethnology in Lithuania up to the middle of the 20th century was strongly influenced by the development of the science in Western Europe. Lithuanian Scientific Society, founded in 1907, took the statutes of the Anthropological Society of Vienna and the Russian Imperial Geographical Society in St. Petersburg as the basis for its own statute and emphasized the necessity to foster ethnology, ethnography, archaeology, history and other sciences. Pranas Dovydaitis, from 1924 the editor of the journal of religious science Soter, published at the University of Lithuania (later renamed into Vytautas Magnus University), closely followed the news on ethnology from the Western world, extensively surveyed in the magazine the newest research and disputes regarding the methods and concepts of the science. On the eve of the first Soviet occupation, the differentiation of ethnological sciences which formed in the late 19th century was still in progress in Lithuania. It embraced theoretical ethnological studies and ethnology analogous to Polish ludoznawstwo and German Volkskunde. At times, overlapping branches of the study of national culture such as ethnological ethnography, folkloristics, art criticism, ethnomusicology and mythology analysed local ethno-cultural and social phenomena. Theoreticians Jonas Baldžius, Jonas Balys, Jonas Basanavičius and Pranas Dovydaitis sought wider cultural context and more extensive space for comparative analysis. In the Soviet Union the period of 1928-1938 was marked by ideological repressive struggle attempting to accommodate the fundamental scientific concepts related to ethnicity, ethnic particularity, cultural development, etc. to Marxism. The majority of prominent specialists in the humanities were arrested and penalized. [...]. [From the publication]

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2019-02-25 16:51:42
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