Konstitucijos preambulė – raktas konstitucinio reguliavimo sistemai suprasti

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Konstitucijos preambulė – raktas konstitucinio reguliavimo sistemai suprasti
Alternative Title:
Preamble of the Constitution: the key to understanding the constitutional regulatory system
In the Journal:
Jurisprudencija [Jurisprudence]. 2012, Nr. 19 (3), p. 907-921
Konstitucija; Preambulė; Struktūra; Teisės istorija; Įvadinė dalis.
Constitution; History of law; Introductory part; Preamble; Structure.
Summary / Abstract:

LTKonstituciją, kaip aukščiausios teisinės galios aktą, sudaro tam tikros standartinės struktūrinės dalys: preambulė, pagrindinė dalis, baigiamosios, pereinamosios arba papildomosios nuostatos, kartais priedai. Preambulė, kaip įvadinė konstitucijos dalis, yra labai svarbi konstitucinio reguliavimo sistemai suprasti. Siekiant šį teiginį pagrįsti, pirmojoje straipsnio dalyje glaustai apžvelgiamos Lietuvos konstitucijų, priimtų 1918–1940 m., preambulės, taip pat 1992 m. Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucijos preambulė. Antrojoje dalyje nagrinėjamos kitų šalių – 1787 m. Jungtinių Valstijų Konstitucijos, 1949 m. Vokietijos Federacinės Respublikos Pagrindinio Įstatymo, 1958 m. Prancūzijos Respublikos Konstitucijos ir keleto Vidurio ir Rytų Europos valstybių (1992 m. Estijos Respublikos, 1992 m. Čekijos Respublikos ir 1997 m. Lenkijos Respublikos) konstitucijų preambulės. Remiantis atlikta apžvalga, konstatuojama, kad konstitucijų preambulėse pirmiausia atsispindi konstitucijų priėmimo aplinkybės, sąlygos, tikslai ir motyvai, vertybės, kurių siekiama, ir kt. Straipsnyje taip pat akcentuojama preambulių ne tik politinė ir ideologinė, bet ir teisinė reikšmė. [Iš leidinio]

ENWhile analysing constitutions of various countries in the legal literature, usually not only the form and the content but also the structure of the constitution is discussed. The structure of the constitution is an internal organisational order of the norms of the constitution. Although every state has a unique structure of their constitution, however, certain regularities can be discerned. The analysis of the structure of various constitutions leads to a conclusion that normally each constitution consists of the following standard structural parts: the preamble, the main part, the final, transitional or additional provisions, in some constitutions there can also be annexes. The article ascertains that most of the constitutions begin with the introductory part, the preamble. Only the constitutions of several countries (e.g. Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Greece) contain no preamble. After analysing the preambles of the Lithuanian Constitutions adopted in 1918-1940, the Lithuanian Constitution of 1992, the Constitution of the United States of America of 1787, the Constitution of Federal Republic of Germany of 1949, and the constitutions of several Central and Eastern European countries (the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia of 1992, the Constitution of Czech Republic of 1992 and the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997) it is stated that a preamble is considered as an inseparable part of an official text of a constitution. The preamble reflects the historical context and the circumstances of the adoption of a constitution, names the goals of the constitutional regulation, fortifies the values to be attained, declares the key political principles or even the fundamental human rights and freedoms, etc.Often the preamble reveals the methods of adoption of a constitution. The preamble is an important structural part of the constitution that helps to understand the established constitutional regulation. The principles enshrined in it can be considered as significant argument for the constitutional justice institutions while solving the case of whether the law or any other legal act in question contradicts with the constitution. While interpreting and applying the constitution as a single act, its separate sections, clauses or certain provisions it is necessary to take the content of the preamble into account, since no text of the constitution shall be interpreted in a way to contradict the statements of the preamble and its spirit. The preamble is not only a category of a political, ideological or philosophical nature, it undoubtedly has the legal burden, therefore it is considered to have legal validity. Constitutions usually do not contain any particular preamble amendment procedures. The preambles are characterised to have the so-called higher style; they are usually formulated not in compliance with the requirements of legal technique. Therefore, they differ from other constitutional provisions that are usually set out in official writing style according to certain rules of legal technique. [From the publication]

1392-6195; 2029-2058
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2018-12-17 13:17:53
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