Pogrindžio leidinys "Perspektyvos" (1978-1981): intelektualiosios savilaidos pradžia Lietuvoje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Pogrindžio leidinys "Perspektyvos" (1978-1981): intelektualiosios savilaidos pradžia Lietuvoje
Alternative Title:
Underground publication "Perspektyvos" (1978-1981): the beginning of intellectual samizdat in Lithuania
In the Journal:
Genocidas ir rezistencija. 2002, 2 (12), p. 179-208
"Perspektyvos"; Disidentai; Intelektualai; Leidinys "Perspektyvos"; Lietuvių disidentai; Neginkluotas pasipriešinimas; Perspektyvos; Pogrindis; Pogrindžio leidiniai; Rusų samizdatas; Savilaida; Sovietų Lietuva; Spauda; Vytautas Skuodis.
"Perspektyvos"; Dissidents; Intellectuals; Lithuanian dissidents; Perspektyvos; Press; Publication "Perspektyvos"; Russian samizdat; Samizdat; Soviet Lithuania; Unarmed rezistance; Underground; Underground publications; Vytautas Skuodis.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje, remiantis į istoriografiją dar neįtrauktais šaltiniais, apžvelgiama mažai tyrinėta pogrindžio leidinio „Perspektyvos“ istorija, jo atsiradimas, leidyba, paplitimas; analizuojamos leidėjų nuostatos, tikslai, aptariama Lietuvos visuomenės raidos ir pogrindyje vykusių procesų įtaka leidiniui, „samizdato“ ir Rusijos disidentų įtaka Lietuvos pogrindžiui bei „Perspektyvoms“; nušviečiamas jų vertinimas pogrindyje ir valdžios reakcija į leidinį; nagrinėjama „Perspektyvų“ vieta Lietuvos savilaidoje ir jų įtaka visuomenei; atskleidžiamos leidinio sunaikinimo aplinkybės ir KGB veikla tai vykdant. [Iš leidinio]

ENWhen samizdat appeared (in 1972 Lietuvos Katalikų Bažnyčios Kronika came out for the first time), resistance to soviet occupation reached higher level, became more organised, in Lithuania. However, samizdat of national and catholic character did not satisfy some of dissidents, especially those who sympathized ideas of democracy and human rights suggested by the Russian samizdat, due to its occasional intolerance and narrowness. This reason was the main for appearance of a new underground publication the Perspektyvos in 1978. The publisher of this publication was a docent of Vilnius University Vytautas Skuodis helped by Albertas Zvicevičius, Stasys Stungurys, Albertas Žilinskas, Ramutis Bonifacas Mikšys and Povilas Pečeliūnas. This publication was the only monthly in Lithuania. Many translations from the Russian samizdat (translations comprised one third of the publication, mostly, written by Andrei Sakharov), articles from Lithuanian samizdat, press of emigrants, excerpts from foreign radio stations' broadcasts and also articles and documents by Lithuanian dissidents were published in the Perspektyvos. Publishers declared legality of their activities and their goal to change the system in (lie process of democratization, i.e. they as if repeated principles of the Russian liberal samizdat. However, undeclared goal of the publishers was the independence of Lithuania. They published unchanged material of various deviations and various opinions they could get and this way they broke a certain censorship which had been characteristic to the Lithuanian samizdat before.Gintautas Iešmantas was the main author of the publication. He published his variant of the Eurocommunist theory, more radical than the one by Roy Medvedev, and presented concrete ways in fight for independence based on this theory. His left-wing ideas received reasonable amount of criticism from dissidents of other orientation and readers of the publication. However, the publication was popular among Lithuanian intellectuals oriented towards opposition because of its contents, liberality, openness and higher intellectual level. Many of the intellectuals read and distributed the publication. The distribution of the Perspektyvos was limited by poor funding of publication. It was also difficult to send the Perspektyvos abroad (only six issues of 22) because underground messengers were suspicious of its strange contents. There are several hints that the Perspektyvos made long term influence on the underground and even influenced ideas and activities of national revival in 1988-1990. In 1979, when anti-dissident campaign started in the USSR, non-catholic samizdat published by vulnerable small groups of dissidents with poor funds suffered most in Lithuania. In January 1980, the publisher of the Perspektyvos V. Skuodis was arrested and G. Iešmantas in March. They were condemned to seven years of concentration camp and five years of exile, the maximum penalty, in December 1980. However, from 1980 to 1982, five more issues of the publication prepared by V. Skuodis' comrades came out. […]. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 11:06:00
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