Sovietinio socialinės apsaugos modelio funkcijos bei raida ir Lietuva

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Sovietinio socialinės apsaugos modelio funkcijos bei raida ir Lietuva
Alternative Title:
Soviet social security model’s functions, development and Lithuania
In the Journal:
Politologija. 2012, Nr. 2 (66), p. 32-77
Keywords:
LT
Socialinė apsauga, sovietinis socialinės apsaugos modelis, socialinis draudimas, Lietuva; Socialinės apsaugos modelis; Sovietinis.
EN
Lithuania; Model of social security; Social security, soviet model of social security, social insurance, Lithuania; Soviet.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje analizuojami sovietinio socialinės apsaugos modelio Lietuvoje raida, funkcijos ir ideologiniai ypatumai. Analizė pradedama carinės Rusijos, kuriai priklausė didžioji Lietuvos dalis, socialinio saugumo bruožų nušvietimu, trumpai pristatoma sovietinės Litbelo respublikos socialinė sistema ir smulkiai analizuojama sovietinio laikotarpio socialinė apsauga, kurią 1940 m. privalėjo perimti sovietų okupuota Lietuva. Straipsnyje apibrėžiama sovietinio socialinio draudimo sistemos struktūra ir ideologija, kuri buvo naudojama komunistinei propagandai, atskleidžiami svarbiausi jos raidos bruožai. Paaiškinta socialinio draudimo išlaidų problema, apibrėžtos socialinio draudimo šakos. Tai senatvės ir neįgalumo pensijų, ligos, nėštumo ir gimdymo, laidojimo ir bedarbių pašalpos (pastarosios buvo mokamos labai trumpą laiką – tik ankstyvuoju sovietiniu laikotarpiu). Straipsnyje remiamasi ir lyginama oficialiai skelbta SSRS ir Lietuvos SSR statistika, daugiausia – iš vėlyvojo SSRS laikotarpio (pradedant 1975 m.), t. y. tuo laikotarpiu, kai sovietinio socialinio draudimo sistema pasiekė savo ribas ir parodė savo galimybes. Ankstesniojo sovietinio laikotarpio analizei straipsnio autoriai pasitelkia archyvinę medžiagą.Tai – unikalus savo apimtimi, visapusišką sisteminę analizę pateikiantis straipsnis apie sovietinės socialinės politikos raidą ir jos specifinius elementus Lietuvoje. Lietuvoje kitų autorių ši tema nebuvo nagrinėta, vieninteliame R. Lazutkos straipsnyje „Pensijų sistemų raida Lietuvoje“, kuris pasirodė žurnale „Filosofija. Sociologija“ (2007, Nr. 2), buvo aptarti kai kurie sovietinės pensijų sistemos ypatumai. [Iš leidinio]

ENThis article is unique in that, for the first time, Russian and Soviet social security development in Lithuania is studied comprehensively and systematically including all major types of social insurance, tracking changes over time and identify their causes. The article broadly analyzes the social security legislation, the publications of Soviet Union’s and Lithuanian SSR’s official statistics, presents national and international analysis and the archival materials, revealing how the Lithuanian social security system evolved during Russian and Soviet rule. The article reveals the structure and ideology of the Soviet social insurance system. In the whole territory of the USSR, the same principles and laws of social insurance were applied. The foundations for Soviet social security and social insurance systems were layed rather early – already 8-10 years before the II world war began. But Soviet Union, especially after 1940, was not totally homogeneous. In several Soviet republics, for example Lithuania, some specific elements were observed which influenced the administrative methods in social security, social insurance and social support. The article explains the nature of social insurance expenditure. We define and explain the branches of social insurance in the USSR: old age and disability pensions, illness, maternity, funeral and unemployment benefits (the latter were paid in the early Soviet period only). The article deals with official USSR and Lithuanian SSR statistics, mainly from the last Soviet period (beginning 1975), when Soviet social insurance reached its limits and showed its potential.Although Soviet social insurance was related to the principles of the Bismarckian work record and former earnings, it was however financed from Moscow’s centrally organised budget and was not related to meaningful contributions of employers and employees. The one-party communist system had a big role in the functioning of social insurance in the USSR and the Lithuanian SSR. The article shows that the Lithuanian social protection system because of the occupation of Russia (1795-1914) and the Soviet Union (1940-1990) was closely related to the system of pre-revolution Russian and Soviet Union’s, with some insignificant regional differences. The social security programs were used as instruments to strengthen workers’ control. No other country in the world but USSR has used its social security system as a tool for propaganda. Despite that, the Soviet Union and the Lithuanian SSR did not stay aloof from social security system reforms in the world. When Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940, it had to comply with the formed system of social insurance and social care. The main role in Lithuanian SSR was given to the social insurance scheme, which did not involve contributions of the residents (instead, it was done by work organizations, and administered by the state and trade unions). In comparison with other soviet republics, Lithuania featured a higher level of independence in the social care field than in the field of social insurance, and the Lithuanian authorities used it wisely to build nursing homes for elderly and improving their administration, supporting children of poor families, etc. [...]. [text from author]

ISSN:
1392-1681; 2424-6034
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/39292
Updated:
2018-12-17 13:17:24
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