Vasaros saulėgrįžos šventės pavadinimo problema

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Vasaros saulėgrįžos šventės pavadinimo problema
Alternative Title:
Problematic name of Summer Solstice Festival
In the Journal:
Tiltai. Priedas. 2003, Nr. 16, p. 18-35
Joninės; Kalendorinės šventės; Vasaros saulėgrįža; Šventės pavadinimas.
Calendar customs; Calendar festivals; Name of festival; St. John Day; Summer solstice.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnio tikslas – aptarti baltų vasaros saulėgrįžos šventės pavadinimus, visų senuosiuose šaltiniuose fiksuotų pavadinimų (Līgo svētki, Rasos, Kupole, Kreszė, Kekiris, Joninės, Jāņi) kilmę bei semantiką, remiantis kalbine, tautosakine, etnografine medžiaga bei kalbininkų, etnologų, mitologų (J. Balio, K. Būgos, P. Dundulienės, M. Gimbutienės, A. Patacko, S. Skrodenio, V. Toporovo, A. Vyšniauskaitės ir kt.) darbais. Sinkretiškiausias, išreiškiantis liaudiškąjį (ikikrikščioniškąjį) šventės turinį ir su krikščionybe atėjusį jos pavadinimą bei fiksuojantis istorinę tradicijų kaitą būtų Joninių pavadinimas. [Iš leidinio]

ENBefore celebration of one or another calendar festival begins newspapers, journals, radio and television try to explain the content of the festival, i.e. customs, traditions, analysis of names and functions of festival-associated deities or mythical personages. It is traditionally attempted to distinguish pre-Christian and Christian sections, to etymologize the name of the festival (it is usually attempted to find more archaic name related to pre-Christian tradition), etc. The Summer Solstice Festival is not an exception, the name of which is different not only in popular mass media, but also in scientific journals under review and various studies, monographs and encyclopedias (Līgo svētki, Rasos, Kupole, Kreszė, Kekiris, Joninės, Jāņi). The problem of the name of the festival that has remained till nowadays suggests the objective of the article - to discuss the nature and semantics of the names found in ancient resources on the grounds of linguistic, folklore and ethnographic material and works of linguists, ethnology and mythology specialists (J. Balys, P. Dundulienė, M. Gimbutienė, A. Jonynas, G. Patackas, S. Skrodenis, V.N. Toporovas, A. Vyšniauskaitė). It can be stated that pre-Christian name of the festival has been lost forever (if it only existed). The names of Kekiris and Krešė (Kreszes) were recorded by persons belonging to another nation and are not sufficiently certified in resources so that we could unconditionally relate them to the Summer Solstice Festival.However, these names are mentioned in different periods of time and different areas (Kekiris - in East Lithuania, Krešė - in historical Prussian territories), therefore they cannot be attributed to the whole territory of Lithuania. The names Rasos, Kupole or the Latvian one, Līgo svētki, most probably appeared because of the preferred exceptional moment of the festival, i.e. ritual significance of morning dew, picking of medicinal herbs or popular refrain of songs of the Summer Solstice Festival. The name Kupole should be preferred, since the already mentioned names Krešė (Kreszes) and Kekiris are semantically linked with vigorously growing vegetation, hence they are rather close to the meaning of Kupole. Though it might be possible that the name Kupole has originated from the Slavonic Kupala, which in one's turn has originated from the word Kupatsia meaning bathing. The most syncretic name expressing the national (pre-Christian) content of the festival and brought by Christianity thus showing historical changes of traditions could be Joninės. Moreover, the names and content of other calendar festivals (such as Christmas, Christmas Eve and Easter) reflect the same tradition - continuous syncretism of two cultures. [From the publication]

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2018-12-17 11:14:19
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