Atrandant žemėlapius, arba kartografija - archeologijai

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Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Atrandant žemėlapius, arba kartografija - archeologijai
Alternative Title:
Discovering maps. Cartography for archaeology
In the Journal:
Lietuvos archeologija. 2010, t. 36, p. 9-28
1569-1795. Lietuva ATR laikotarpiu.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje į Lietuvos kartografiją žvelgiama iš archeologijos perspektyvos: analizuojamos kartografams skirtos instrukcijos ir apžvelgiami jų darbo rezultatai - įvairūs Lietuvos teritorijos žemėlapių (XVII a. vidurys-XX a.) komplektai. Straipsnio pagrindas -1891-1907 m. topografinis vakarinių Rusijos imperijos gubernijų žemėlapis M 1:21 000, kuriame kartografuotus Rytų ir Pietų Lietuvos pilkapius straipsnio autoriai analizavo GIS aplinkoje ir žvalgė 2008 m. ekspedicijos metu. Per trejus metus autorių sukaupta patirtis leidžia formuluoti bendro pobūdžio metodologines prielaidas, formuoti žemėlapių archeologijos tyrimų kryptį. [Iš leidinio]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Kartografija; GIS analizė; Archeologijos tyrimai; Cartography; GIS analysis; Archaeological research.

ENThe article speaks broadly for the first time about Lithuanian cartography from the perspective of archaeology: it surveys maps prepared during the late 17th-20th centuries, analyses the instructions for cartographers, and presents the results of an analysis of the archaeological information found in the 1891-1907 topographic map using GIS tools and its verification during field surveys. The first triangulation network in Lithuania was created in 1795-1803 in the Prussian controlled Trans-Neman region (Lith. Užnemunė, Southwest Lithuania). Thus the first accurate topographic maps (1:33 000 scale) of this territory appeared at that time. The triangulation network of Vilnius Province in the Russian Empire was created during 1816-1821 and a 1:21 000 scale topographic photograph of the province was made using a plane table. Unfortunately, just one map sheet of the city of Vilnius was printed on this basis. An instrumental photograph of Lithuania's territory was made during 1881-1907 and two sets of topographic maps (1:21 000 and 1:42 000 scale) were prepared on its basis. In analysing this map (1:21 000 scale) for the first time from an archaeological perspective, it was noted that seven barrows that have now been completely or partially destroyed (Fig. 7) were marked by a barrow symbol (курган) at the site of the Turlojiškės barrow cemetery (Širvintos District). In this way the idea arose to study the map more carefully and to survey in the field those map locations marked with barrows, i.e. potential archaeological sites. In 2008, in examining a German topographic map (1:25 000 scale), which was an accurate copy of the aforementioned Russian map (1:21 000 scale), an analysis of the map's contents was made using GIS tools.Of the 517 map sheets encompassing Lithuanian territory that were available during the project, 210 (Alytus, Kaunas, and Vilnius Counties) were checked. Keeping in mind the range of the East Lithuanian barrow culture (3rd - 7th centuries), this was the region, where the greatest possibility of finding unknown barrows existed. 10 localities were recorded, where the topographers used a single barrow symbol, 13 where they used two or more (Fig. 9). The topographic map analysis and the field verification of its results (For more about the course of the field survey, see Vaitkevičius, Žikulinas, 2009) presuppose several conclusions: first, Some of the presumed archaeological sites (barrows) that were mapped have already by now been physically destroyed; second, the relief in some of the surveyed localities has been changed beyond recognition through the forces of nature or human activity. It is still possible to determine the archaeological value of such sites through a field evaluation (Fig. 10a); third, some of the barrows on the maps are sand dune formations; fourth, not just earth and sand mounds, but also rock cairns characteristic of Jatvingian burial sites were marked with a barrow symbol in Šalčininkai District in South Lithuania; and fifth, some of the barrows shown on the maps are archaeologically valuable. The topographic position and mound form (Fig. 10b) characteristic of barrows do not allow one to doubt this. Some archaeological finds testify to the location of the destroyed barrows (Fig. 10c). In all, the analysis of the map's diverse archaeological information and the subsequent field verification yielded positive results in nine instances. [From the publication]

0207-8694; 2538-6514
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2018-12-20 23:28:29
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