Įsruties apskrities bažnyčių ir mokyklų vizitacijos potvarkio "Recessus generalis" (1639) reikšmė lietuvių raštijai ir jo vykdytojas Danielius Kleinas

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Įsruties apskrities bažnyčių ir mokyklų vizitacijos potvarkio "Recessus generalis" (1639) reikšmė lietuvių raštijai ir jo vykdytojas Danielius Kleinas
Alternative Title:
Decree "Recessus generalis" (1639) on inspecting Įsrutis (Insterburg) county churches and schools: its importance for the development of Lithuanian writings and Danielius Kleinas, who implemented the decree
In the Journal:
Archivum Lithuanicum. 2009, t. 11, p. 9-62
Keywords:
LT
Danielius Kleinas; Melchioras Švoba; Prūsijos kunigaikštis Fridrichas Vilhelmas; lietuviški giesmynai; Lietuvių raštija; atradimas; nauji dokumentai; reikšmė.
EN
Danielius Kleinas; Melchioras Švoba; Friedrich Wilhelm; Duke of Prussia; Lithuanian hymn books; Lithuanian writings; discovery; new documents; importance.
Summary / Abstract:

LT2008 metais Vokietijoje rasta keletas dokumentų, pateikiančių autentiškos informacijos apie Danieliaus Kleino (1609-1666) gramatikų, žodyno, giesmyno rengimo aplinkybes ir lietuvių raštijos būklę XVII amžiaus viduryje: 1) Danieliaus Kleino laiškas Prūsijos kunigaikščiui Frydrichui Vilhelmui dėl lietuviško giesmyno, Tilžė, 1659 06 19, rašytas vokiškai; 2) Kunigaikščio Frydricho Vilhelmo administracijos pranešimas Danieliui Kleinui apie recenzentų rekomendaciją spausdinti jo rankraščius, Karaliaučius, 1652 06 20, rašytas vokiškai; 3) Kunigaikščio Frydricho Vilhelmo potvarkis lietuvių kunigams dėl susitikimo Tilžėje su Danieliumi Kleinu aptarti giesmyno reikalus (nuorašas), Berlynas?, 1659 06 20, rašytas vokiškai. Danieliaus Kleino laiškas iki šiol nepublikuotas. Jis laikytinas didžiausiu (bet ne vieninteliu) šiuo metu žinomu Kleino autografu. Laiške autorius mini abi savo gramatikas ("Grammatica Litvanica", 1653 ir "Compendium",1654), žodyną, tačiau daugiausia kalba apie rengiamą giesmyną ("Naujos giesmių knygos", išspausdintos 1666 metais). Jis prašo valdovo apginti įžeistą garbę, sutramdyti lietuvių kunigus, puolančius jo giesmyną, įsakyti sudaryti naują vertinimo komisiją ir paspartinti rankraščio spausdinimą Karaliaučiuje. Esminiai tos istorijos faktai tyrėjams ir visuomenei žinomi - jie išdėstyti Kleino giesmyno ir gramatikos pratarmėse. Tačiau šie autentiški dokumentai atskleidžia naujų detalių ir išryškina Kleino indėlį vykdant lietuviškų knygų leidybos programą pagal Prūsijos kunigaikščio Jurgio Vilhelmo paskelbtą potvarkį "Recessus generalis".

ENThe year 2008 witnessed the discovery of three documents of utmost importance for the study of Lithuanian writings: 1) Danielius Kleinas's (1609-1666) letter to Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Prussia, on a Lithuanian hymn book, Tilžė (Tilsit), 1659 06 19; 2) a letter to Kleinas by Friedrich Wilhelm's administration on the reviewers' recommendation to publish Kleinas's manuscripts, Karaliaučius (Königsberg), 1652 06 20; 3) Duke Friedrich Wilhelm's decree (transcript) that Lithuanian priests should meet Kleinas in Tilžė and discuss issues related to the hymn book, Berlin?, 1659 06 20. All the documents were found in the National Secret Archives of Prussian Cultural Heritage in Berlin (Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz). The above documents shed some light on Kleinas's contribution to the development of the Lithuanian writings in the 17th century and some circumstances of implementing the General Decree (Recessus Generalis) of 1639 and its section On Additional Measures. Kleinas was the key person appointed by the government responsible for the implementation of the above decree. He undertook to edit the manuscript of the Bible translated by Jonas Bretkūnas (Johannes Bretke). Kleinas also started compiling a dictionary and a hymn book. In the meantime, he was writing a grammar, too. He took the initiative to prepare a prayer book in Lithuanian. The grammar was published the first (1653), then its German version came out (1654). In the process of preparing the hymn book, the Lithuanian priests involved in its preparation expressed opposing views despite the fact that the hymn book had been already approved.This can be seen in the document of 1652. From the letter we are able to identify Kleinas's main opponents as Melchioras Švoba (Melchiorus Schwabe) from Valtarkiemis (Waltarkehmen), Jonas Liudemanas (Johannes Lüdemann) from Nybudžiai (Niebudzen) and Jonas Forhofas (Johannes Vorhoff) from Gumbinė (Gumbinnen). Melchioras Švoba and his followers had already prepared their own hymn book and took efforts to prevent Kleinas from publishing his hymn book. In his letter of 1659, Kleinas asked the Duke to stop the priests and arrange a meeting with the opponents to discuss the hymn book. From the third document (1659) it is evident that the Duke, in response to Kleinas's request expressed in his letter, issued an order to arrange a meeting in Tilžė 14 July 1659. It is still unknown if the meeting took place; however, Kleinas's hymn book (1666) contains a number of hymns of his two opponents Švoba and Liudemanas. The preface to the hymn book gives references to Švoba as one of the censors who approved of Kleinas's hymn book. The hymn book by Švoba and his followers has never been published, what happened with the manuscript is unknown. The letter provides interesting details about how Kleinas's dictionary perished -it was destroyed by fire in the Great Northern War and has never been restored. So Kleinas was fully aware of the importance of the General Decree for the development of Lithuanian writings. He only managed to implement part of its provisions; his work was curtailed by his death. [From the publication]

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1392-737X
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Updated:
2018-12-17 12:31:12
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