XIII-XVII a. mediniai dirbiniai Vilniaus žemutinėje pilyje

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
XIII-XVII a. mediniai dirbiniai Vilniaus žemutinėje pilyje
Alternative Title:
Wooden artefacts of the 13th - 17th century in the Vilnius lower castle
In the Book:
Vilniaus Žemutinė pilis XIV a. - XIX a. pradžioje : 2005-2006 m. tyrimai. Vilnius: Pilių tyrimo centras "Lietuvos pilys", 2007. P. 195-239
Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė. LDK (XIII a. – 1569) / Grand Duchy of Lithuania. GDL; Abiejų Tautų Respublika. ATR (1569 - 1795) / Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Summary / Abstract:

LTŽemutinės pilies kompleksą įvairiais laikotarpiais sudarė nemažai skirtingos paskirties objektų, dėl to surinkta medinių radinių kolekcija yra įvairiapusė: nuo įprastinių buities įrankių iki prabangos, kulto atributų. Pagal dirbinių funkcijas surinkti mediniai radiniai skirstytini į penkias stambias grupes: darbo įrankius ir priemones, buities atributus, žaislų ir kulto liekanas, baldų ir architektūrines detales bei neaiškios paskirties dirbinius. Pirmajai grupei priskiriami įvairūs amatininkų ir kasdieniniai buities įrankiai: kurpaliai, kastuvai, mentelės, šluotos, grėbliai, transporto priemonių dalys, matavimo, pluošto apdirbimo, maisto gaminimo įrankiai bei darbui skirti indai. Antrajai grupei priklauso kiekvieną dieną reikalingi dirbiniai: balanos, stalo indai bei įrankiai, higienos, tualeto reikmenys. Trečiąją grupę sudaro vaikų bei suaugusiųjų žaislai ir galbūt prie kulto atributų priskirtini dirbiniai. Ketvirtąją grupę sudaro baldų ir architektūrinės detalės. O paskutiniąją, penktąją, grupę - neaiškios paskirties dirbiniai. Chronologiniu požiūriu dirbiniai pasiskirstę netolygiai. Ankstyviausi dirbiniai datuojami XIII a. Jie dažniausiai randami Pilies kalno šiaurinėje papėdėje. Daugiausia surinkta iš XIV–XV a. - 40,8 proc. visų medinių radinių. Surinkta nemaža XIV–XV a. stalo indų kolekcija. Dirbinių, datuojamų XVI a., nėra daug - tik 9,1 proc. viso medinių radinių kiekio. Dar mažiau medinių dirbinių aptikta XVI–XVII a. kultūriniuose sluoksniuose - 3,8 proc. Mažiausiai aptikta iš XVII a. - tik l proc. visų medinių dirbinių.Reikšminiai žodžiai: Vilniaus Žemutinė Pilis; Mediniai dirbiniai; Archeologiniai duomenys; Istoriniai šaltiniai; 13 amžius; 14 amžius; 15 amžius; 16 amžius; 17 amžius; Vilnius Lower Castle; wooden artefacts; Archaeological material; Historical data; 13th -17th cneturies; Mediniai dirbiniai; 13 amžius; 14 amžius; 15 amžius; 16 amžius; 17 amžius; Vilniaus Žemutinė pilis; įrankiai; Reikmenys; Indai; Vandens ir sausumos transporto priemonės; Namų apyvokos reikmenys; žaislai; Su kultu susiję daiktai; Baldų ir architektūrinės detalės; Amatininkai; Medienos gamybos technologijos; Wooden artefacts; 13-17th cent.; Tools; Implement; Dishes; Means of water and land communication; Household items; Toys; Things attributed to cult rituals; Parts of furniture and architecture; Craftmen; wood processing technologies.

ENThe largest collection of wooden artefacts of the 13th-17th century in Lithuania was collected while exploring the territory of the Vilnius Lower Castle. By 2007 over 1000 individual findings of this group had been discovered in that territory, which allowed to successively reveal the development of these items from the 13th to the 17th century. The work consists of two parts: historical data and archaeological material are presented. The findings are divided into functional groups, which are arranged in the descending order according to the number of manufactured items in them. At the end, the manufactured items of an unclear purpose are briefly discussed. The first and the largest group of findings is directly related to medieval crafts and everyday household activities. Tools and implements account for 21.8 per cent and dishes intended for work account for 22.2 per cent of all wooden items. The wooden items discovered show that cobblers and shoemakers, coopers, carpenters, joiners, beekeepers, fishermen lived in the territory. People who lived in that place used weaving, spinning and food preparing implements. Means of water and land communication or parts thereof were discovered: oars, cart axles, wheels, construction parts of sledges. Wars were an inseparable part of life - the remains of wooden weapons were found. Household items constitute the second group. Lighting articles, tableware, toiletries; looking-glass frames, combs arc attributed to household items. The use of wood in manufacture of boots is discussed. Findings belonging to this group account for 17.7 per cent of all wooden artefacts. The third group of findings is made of toys and things attributed to cult rituals. It accounts for 10.7 per cent of all wooden artefacts. Manufactured items of this group reveal nuances of culture of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.Specificity of children's toys shows the level of education, games of the adults reflect education of people of that time, and sticks with knobs generate new ideas in the sphere of investigating pagan rituals. Parts of furniture and architecture, which account for as little as 3 per cent of all artefacts are mentioned in brief. Items of the unclear purpose collected during archaeological investigations are discussed in the last part of the work. This is the largest group of findings accounting for 24.6 per cent of all findings. Most probably they could be attributed to all above-described groups, however, due to a low percentage of their survival or a lack of information the purpose of the wooden items found remains undetermined. Having analysed these items it became clear that from the chronological point of view the items are distributed unevenly. The earliest items are dated the 13th century - they account for 6.2 per cent of all wooden findings. The earliest findings in the remaining territory are dated the 14th century and account for 30.3 per cent of all findings. The largest amount - 40.8 per cent - is collected from the 14th-15th century. The number of items dated the 16th century when the Vilnius Lower Castle was in the epoch of its upswing is not considerable - only 9.1 per cent. Still fewer wooden artefacts were discovered in the cultural layers of the 16th-17th century - as much as 3.8 per cent. The smallest amount of wooden items - as little as one per cent - were found from the 17th century. Fluctuation in the number of wooden artefacts during different time periods is explained by the development of the Vilnius Lower Castle, peculiarities of soil and insufficient study of certain up-castle areas. Having looked through the wooden artefacts it turned out that craftsmen knew different wood processing technologies as early as the 13th century.Various tools, parts of means of transportation, spoons, ladles, scoops, and simpler bowls were made by carving. Tableware, architectural fragments were shaped on a lathe. Small buckets and boxes made of birch-bark constitute an original group of dishes. Making dishes of staves for which special tools and knowledge were needed should be distinguished. Wooden items made for functional use were not notable for their embellishment. Decoration of items by carving and with different colours, which was popular in the neighbouring countries, was not so popular in the territory of the Lower Castle. Several "ritual sticks", chess figures and one or another architectural fragment illustrate examples of fine carving. People started processing wooden raw material as early as the Stone Age, and in the Middle Ages they knew all its positive and negative properties, they knew how to make use of its aesthetic and physical properties. Wooden items changed very little during 13th-17th centuries. Many wooden household utensils discovered in the cultural layers of the 13th-17th centuries were known in the Stone Age. The majority of them, which have retained the same forms and technologies of manufacture, were used until the middle of the 20th century, and some of them have survived until today. [From the publication]

Related Publications:
2013-04-28 18:41:47
Views: 50