Rzeczpospolita Wazów. [T.] 2, Wojsko Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego, dyplomacja, varia

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knyga / Book
Language:
Lenkų kalba / Polish
Title:
Rzeczpospolita Wazów. [T.] 2, Wojsko Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego, dyplomacja, varia
Alternative Title:
Commonwealth of the Vasas
Publication Data:
Warszawa : Wydawnictwo Neriton : 2004.
Pages:
321 p
Notes:
Bibliografija išnašose ir asmenvardžių rodyklė.
Contents:
Wprowadzenie — O wojsku i żołnierzach — Siły zbrojne Rzeczypospolitej — Siły zbrojne Korony i Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego — Król i hetmani — Podstawy prawne i finansowe — Oddzialy polskie i cudzoziemskie. Artyleria. Inżynieria wojskowa — Listy przypowiednie, besztalunki i kapitulacje — Kozacy zaporoscy — Lisowczycy — Zaprowiantowanie w czasie działań — Chorzy, ranni, wzieci do niewoli — Żołnierz a prawo — Wypowiedzenie służby — Pospolite ruszenie — Tatarzy Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego — Wybrańcy — Siły zbrojne sejmików — Poczty magnackie i szlacheckie — W walce — Szlachta i Habsburgowie — Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie a Moskwa w dobie smuty — Rzeczpospolita 17 sierpnia 1629 roku albo doba narodzin Jana Sobieskiego — Dysydent protektorem zakonów czyli epizod z działalności Krzysztofa Radziwiłła — O dyplomacji i poslach — Podejmowanie decyzji — Posłowie wielcy, oratorzy i inni — Komisarze — Dokumenty poselstw i komisji — Koszty legacji — Swoboda postępowania dyplomatów — Ratyfikacja — The Commonwealth of the Vasas — Wykaz skrótów — Indeks osób.
Keywords:
LT
Lenkija (Lenkijos karalystė. Kingdom of Poland. Poland); Kariuomenė; Socialinė istorija; Politika; Diplomatija; Vazos (Vasa family); Zigmantas Vaza, 1566-1632 (Zygmunt III Vaza; Sigismund); Vladislovas Vaza; Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės ir Lenkijos kariuomenės; Kariuomenės struktūra ir finansavimas; Statutas; Konstitucijos; Papročiai; Jonas Karolis Chodkevičius (Jan Karol Chodkiewicz); Radvilos (Radziwill; Radvila family); Leonas Sapiega; Habsburgai; Rusija (Russia, Ruthenia).
EN
Army; Social history; Politics; Diplomacy; Time of Vasa's; Sigismundus Vasa; Wladyslaus Vasa; Army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland; Structure and budget of the army; Statute; Constitutions; Customs; Jan Carol Chodkiewich; The Radvila's family; Leon Sapiega; House of Habsburgs.
Summary / Abstract:

LTTai 2002 m. išleisto veikalo Vazų Respublika tęsinys (antrasis tomas). Jame nemėginama išsamiai atsakyti į klausimą, kaip bajorų visuomenė nuėjo keliu, kurį sąlyginai galima vadinti keliu nuo Deulino iki Nemėžio, nors šis klausimas – ATR silpimo problema – neišvengiamai atsiduria kiekvieno platesnio mokslinio tyrimo centre. Deulinas – vietovė šalia Maskvos, kurioje 1618 m. sudaryta taikos sutartimi Respublikai atiteko dideli rusų žemių plotai, įskaitant Smolenską – strateginės reikšmės miestą ir tvirtovę. Nemėžis – kaimelis šalia Vilniaus, kuriame 1656 m. susitarta Lenkijos sostą po Jono Kazimiero mirties atiduoti carui. Tyrimas rodo, kad Respublikos silpnoji vieta buvo finansai, valstybės iždo sandara. Nuo iždo galimybių priklausė, kad Respublikos kariuomenė ne tik skaičiumi, bet ir organizaciniu atžvilgiu nusileido Maskvos ir Švedijos armijoms. Kartu augo visuomenės ir valdančiųjų pasyvumas situacijoje, kuomet iš pradžių nieko arba beveik nieko nedaryta situacijai gerinti, o vėliau Respublikos negalia tapo tokia akivaizdi, kad visiems nusviro rankos ir įsigalėjo įsitikinimas, esą niekas nieko pakeisti nebegali. Tęsiamas Pirmąjame tome pradėtas LDK kariuomenės ir diplomatijos tyrimas. Aptariami kariniai veiksmai, diplomatinių procesų peripetijos, pasiuntinybių tikslai. Bandoma visa tai įvertinti ir apibendrinti. Pažymima, kad ateityje dar turi būti giliau išnagrinėti ir aptarti valdžios sluoksnių veiksmai, karaliaus ir jo aplinkos veikla, bajorijos ideologija.

ENThe present book is a continuation of The Commonwealth of the Vasas, published in 2002. It depicts two of the indicated issues: functioning of the army, albeit only of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and diplomacy. The author emphasises the significance for the military of the whole Commonwealth and only of Lithuania first, the decisions on the incorporation of Sigismund Augustus, then the Union regulations. The former and the latter, of 1569. The incorporation into the Polish Crown of: Podolia, Volhynia (the palatinates of Braclav and Volhynia) and the Duchy of Kiev (formally a palatinate, in reality a district of Kiev, as the Mozyr's remained Lithuanian) caused the change of a strategic situation of the both states. There declined the border between Lithuania and Turkey and its vassal states, instead was established a border between the Polish Crown and Muscovy. This meant that the Crown took over the burden of defence against Tartars raids, Turkish threat and partly Muscovite and in large extent - against the Kossacks revolts. At the same time the shift in belonging of the territory of ca. 200 thousand square kilometres weakened the potential of Lithuania and strengthen the Polish Crown. The Union itself, by maintaining the partial autonomy of the states (territory, offices, treasury and army) caused that the vital problems of the foreign policy were either the problems of Lithuania or the Crown. In addition, the states had to defend their borders on their own. The army is divided by the author into the Crown, Lithuanian and, to some extent, supranational (the king's guard, the auxiliary troops of the vassals, the dukes of Kurland and Prussia).In the Lithuanian army there are distinguished the state armed forces (maintained by the state treasury and formed by the people obliged to the military service, that is the noble levy-en-masse, the Tartars and "selected infantry"), organised by the decision of the dietine (local levy-en-masse and the district squadrons), and finally the private troops. Then the author presented the methods of financing the army, that is from the taxes agreed to by the Sejm and dietines. There is also a description of the command, the ways of forming of the military forces and, among others, the judicial and legal system in the scope concerning the soldiers. With reference to the diplomacy, the author analyses the rules of the law which were playing a decisive role in sending and receiving legates. It is compared with the practice and ended with a conclusion that the decisive voice was that of the king, although on one condition. That is to say, his decisions had to be concurrent, or at least not opposed to the feelings of the noble nation. Then the book presents the division of legates (envoys and commissaries), the hierarchy (both according to Polish and Latin terminology) and types of legates. With reference to their activity, the author described the extent of freedom of action which, according to the author's view, was in fact full, although occasionally it was a result of impossibility to contact with distant king. The part dedicated to diplomacy is concluded with the chapter describing the way of ratification of the treaties. In the author's opinion, there were three such methods: confirmation by the king, confirmation by the king and then by the Sejm, and by the commissaries who concluded the treaty. The two main parts are supplemented with four concise sketches.The first one (The Nobility and the Hapsburgs) is, in fact, a polemics with a wide-spread in Polish historiography opinion on unfavourable attitude of the Polish nobility towards the Hapsburgs. The author indicates the two-time election of the Hapsburgs to the Polish throne, first in 1575 of Emperor Maximilian II, then, in 1587, of Archduke Maximilian. He also reminds about the good will showed towards the queens of the Hapsburg House, and frequent studies in Austria and service in the Hapsburg army. The second sketch (The Grand Duchy of Lithuania versus Moscow in the period ofSmuta) analyses the attitude of the Lithuanian nobility towards Moscow in the early seventeen century. In general, this is a period of transition: from the fear of Moscow to the belief in chance of victory, then, after the seizure of Smolensk - a retreat to the postulate of maintaining the peace. The third essay (The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on 17 August, 1629) briefly describes an international position of the Commonwealth by the last years of Sigismundus III. The title date indicates the day of birth of the future king, John III Sobieski (1674 - election, 1676 - coronation, 1696 - death). And finally, the last sketch (Dissident as a Protector of Orders) is dedicated to the activities of Krzysztof Radziwill (1585-1640), palatine of Vilnius, hetman and - which is the most important in this context - the leader of Lithuanian Protestants, as the author presents the efforts of Krzysztof Radziwill to make bishop of Vilnius Eustachy Wollowicz to permit the Dominicans to establish a monastery at Nowogrodek, then the next one at Kleck. There are also shown his alms-giving to the Warsaw Jesuit house and - in general - friendly relations with the order. [From the publication]

ISBN:
8389729024
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2020-10-15 17:32:50
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