"Castrum doloris" Augusta II Mocnego w Wilnie i jego zachowane fragmenty

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lenkų kalba / Polish
"Castrum doloris" Augusta II Mocnego w Wilnie i jego zachowane fragmenty
Alternative Title:
"Castrum doloris" of Augustus II the strong in Vilnius and its preserved fragments
In the Journal:
Rocznik Lituanistyczny. 2021, 7, p. 185-209
Mykolas Jonas Zenkavičius, 1670-1762 (Michał Jan Zienkowicz); Vilnius. Vilniaus kraštas (Vilnius region); Lietuva (Lithuania); Religinis menas / Religious art; Bažnyčia / Church; Bajorai. Didikai. Valdovai / Gentry. Nobles. Kings.
Summary / Abstract:

LTReikšminiai žodžiai: Vilnius; Katedra; Šv. Kazimiero koplyčia; Skulptūra; Augustas II; Castrum doloris; Laidotuvių apeigos; Antanas Dominykas Tiškevičius; Mykolas Jonas Zenkevičius.

ENThe eight wooden figures in the cathedral Chapel of St Casimir in Vilnius with royal power attributes have been the subject of pretty numerous mentions. Their authors have described the circumstances of their functioning in the chapel in a more or less detailed manner. The publications by Marija Matušakaitė, Katarzyna Mikocka and Mindaugas Paknys should be emphasised, as their observations and analyses form the starting point for this article. On 3 March 1733, in the Roman Catholic passing funeral apparatuses in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as well as Rome and Istanbul. In a short time, the milieu of Bishop Michał Zienkowicz and the members of the Vilnius Chapter realised the ambitious plan of the ceremony. The ideological and artistic keystone was the castrum doloris composed of sculptural representations of six predecessors of the deceased king: Stephen Bathory, Sigismund III Vasa, Władysław IV Vasa, John Casimir, Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki, and John III Sobieski. They were accompanied by sculpted images of at least seven virtues, four skeletons representing attributes of royal power, and two geniuses. A huge wooden crown dominated the entire decoration, complemented by plastic celestial spheres, sophisticated inscriptions, obelisks, and pyramids supporting many candles. The remains of this decoration are the wooden figures still preserved in the Chapel of St Casimir. They were supplemented by two other figures and installed in niches between 1733 and 1737. A closer look at the sculptures reveals that their size contradicts their intended purpose. They do not fit either in height or width, and in some cases, they protrude significantly from the face of the walls. Over time, the original meaning of the group of figures has been lost. Throughout the next 150 years, they were assigned a different identification.In the second half of the nineteenth century, they were identified with inscriptions in Polish indicating the figures of definite seven kings of the Commonwealth and St Casimir. The inscriptions were removed during the restoration in 1989. The sculptures made in Vilnius are cursory made both regarding their countenances and the details of their insignia and attire. They were carved in a hurry, with neglect of the physiognomy and even the mediocre correctness of the details. This proves the extremely short period (about three weeks) for the work to be done by a team of craftsmen of varied experience and talent, among whom there was no outstanding individual. The possible attribution of the sculptures to specific artists is extremely difficult as the figures are almost devoid of individual stylistic features, which could be a starting point for comparative studies. When analysing the iconographic appearance of the figures, it is difficult to formulate any other opinion than that they represent ‘a general imagination of the appearance of a modern European ruler’, which could have arisen before the Enlightenment period. It is worth emphasising that despite the not very high quality of the sculptural artistry, the arrangements of the figures are more than correct. Perhaps, in the course of further archival and iconographic research, it will be possible to find other elements that make part of the funeral decoration of Augustus II the Strong. Keywords: Vilnius; Cathedral; St Casimir Chapel; Scultpure; Augustus II; Castrum doloris; Funeral rites; Antoni Dominik Tyszkiewicz; Michał Jan Zienkowicz. [From the publication]

2450-8446; 2450-8454
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2023-04-16 10:15:06
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