Pažymint astronomo Georgo Sablerio 200 m. gimimo sukaktį

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Pažymint astronomo Georgo Sablerio 200 m. gimimo sukaktį
Alternative Title:
Georg Sabler (1810-1865), eminent director of Vilnius Astronomical Observatory
In the Journal:
Etnokosmologija. 2017, nr. 3-4, p. 98-100
Astrofotometrija; Astronomija; Astronomijos mokslas; Georg Sabler; Georgas Sableris; Georgas Tomas Sableris; Vilniaus astronomijos observatorija; Vilniaus observatorija; Vilniaus senoji observatorija; Vilniaus universiteto astronomijos observatorija.
Astro-photometry; Astronomical science; Astronomy; Georg Sabler; Georg Thomas Sabler; Photometry (astronomy); Vilnius Astronomical Observatory; Vilnius Old Observatory; Vilnius University Astronomical Observatory; Vilnius observatory.
Summary / Abstract:

ENIn 1832 the Russian government closed the Vilnius University, as an act of repression after the uprising against the Czar in 1830-1831. The observatory was entrusted to the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg and continued its activity under P. Slavinski. However, with closing of the University, the observatory lost the possibility for training new students and the positions of astronomers at the observatory were gradually taken over by Russian astronomers from the Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory. But, on the other hand, it played a positive role in changing the field of scientific research. Astronomers of the observatory of that time made a determined decision to abandon astrometry observations and to go over to astrophysical methods of research. Georg (Jegor in Russian) Sabler (1810-1865) and Matvei Gusev (1826-1866) were pioneers in this field of research which was greatly supported by Pulkovo astronomers. Georg Sabler arrived to Vilnius as a new director of Observatory from Pulkovo in 1854. He was born at 12 May 1810 in Haljalu (Rakvere district in Estonia) in the family of Lutheran pastor. Graduated in Dorpat University, G. Sabler begins his scientific career under the tutors of famous astronomer Wilhelm Struve И 793-1864). G. Sabler was the participant of the geodetic expeditions: measuring the difference between the levels of Caspian and Black seas (1836), chrono- metrical at Altona, Germany (1839).G. Sabler also takes active role in the measurement of the Struve geodetic arc, the purpose of which was to determine the form and size of Earth ellipsoid. He takes participation in triangular measurements, performed in Finland and Besarabia. The last stage of this great experiment was finished by once more determining of Nemėžis' latitude (near the Vilnius). It was done by G. Sabler in 1855, using the Reichenbach's vertical circle. The Struve geodetic arc was a longest and the most accurate arc measured at that time, running from Northern Cape of Norway to the Black Sea. In 1861 G. Sabler proposed to acquire new instruments for Sun' reseach. A systematic photography service aimed at recording the dynamics of the sunspots began to function for the first time in the world in 1865. It was called as photographic solar patrol. At this point other innovation endeavours of the Observatory staff should be mentioned. These were spectral research of the Sun surface and astro-photometry. For a few years the Observatory was publishing the first magazine of exact sciences in the Russian Empire. It was called "Vestnik matematiczeskich nauk". Modern apparatuses were bought for carrying out research in new fields. In 1864 a heliograph, the second one in the world, was brought to Vilnius. One out of four F. M. Schwerd's photometers was brought and a spectroscope by G. Merz was launched in 1864.The latter two instruments have survived till our days. They are rare items of the history of science and technology. G. Sabler died in Vilnius after the brain fever at 1865 and was buried at Lutheran cemetery (his grave did not survive till nowadays). Some of his instruments, namely the Schwerd photometer and Merz spectroscope, now are in the exposition of Science Museum of the Vilnius University. Namely G. Sabler and his successors M. Gusew, and P. Smyslow brought fame back to the Vilnius Observatory. [From the publication]

Related Publications:
Senoji Vilniaus universiteto astronomijos observatorija ir jos biblioteka / Stasė Matulaitytė. Vilnius, : Vilniaus universiteto leidykla, 2004. 414 p., XII iliustr. lap.
2021-03-21 13:22:47
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