Mirusiųjų atminimo dienos

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Mirusiųjų atminimo dienos
Alternative Title:
Days of commemoration of the dead
Mirusiųjų atminimo dienų įvairovė — Vilniečių mirusiųjų paminėjimo švenčių geografija ir laikas — Mirusiųjų pagerbimo tradicijos — Šventinė vakarienė — Mirusiųjų paminėjimo dienų tikėjimai — Šventės ritualinių metų struktūroje — Išvados — Literatūra — The Days of commemoration of the dead (summary).
Vilnius. Vilniaus kraštas (Vilnius region); Lietuva (Lithuania); Etninės religinės grupės / Ethnic religious groups; Kapinynai. Pilkapiai / Barrow. Burials; Liaudies kultūra / Folk culture; Papročiai. Apeigos / Customs. Rites; Šventės. Atmintinos dienos / Festivals. Holy days.
Summary / Abstract:

LTDaugelis didesnių švenčių tradiciniame žemdirbių kalendoriuje buvo susijusios su mirusiųjų paminėjimu. Juos minime ir šiandien - per Lietuvos nepriklausomybės, Lietuvos nepriklausomybės atkūrimo, Laisvės gynėjų dieną, Gedulo ir vilties, Motinos, Tėvo dienas, per Kūčias ir daugelį kitų su religiniu kalendoriumi susijusių ar valstybei reikšmingų dienų, iš kurių išskiriamos Vėlinės. Tačiau kaip nedarbo diena pažymėtos šios šventės išvakarės - Visų šventųjų diena. Šiame skyriuje susitelksiu į tikslą parodyti Mirusiųjų paminėjimo švenčių etninius ir kultūrinius savitumus, kelsiu uždavinius atskleisti šventės dalyvių sudėtį, šventimo vietą, šventines vaišes, šeimoje palaikomas tradicijas ir papročius1. [Iš straipsnio, p. 314]Reikšminiai žodžiai: Šventės; Mirusiųjų paminėjimo šventės; Mirusiųjų atminimo dienos; Visų šventųjų diena; Vėlinės; Kapinės; Papročiai; Tradicijos; Etninės grupės; Vilniečiai; Lithuania; Holidays; Celebrations to commemorate the dead; Days of commemoration of the dead; All Souls' Day; Vėlinės; Cemeteries; Customs; Traditions; Ethnic groups; Vilnius residents.

ENMost ofthe larger festivals in the traditional agricultural calendar were related to commemoration ofthe departed. We commemorate them even today on: Day of the Restoration of Lithuanian State, the Day of the Restoration of Independence of Lithuania, Day of Mourningand Hope, Day of Occupation and Genocide, Mother's and Father's days, Christmas Eve and many other days, related to either religious calendar or being of state level importance, with All Souls' Day outstanding and its eve - All Saints' Day - being public holidays. At the same time the Old Believers and the Orthodox Russians commemorate the Day of Dmitri, the Pentecost, Saturday of the Venerable Fathers, Radonica and other festivals. In this chapter we are focusing on the goal of revealing ethnic and cultural peculiarities of the days of commemoration ofthe dead, having objectives to learn the composition ofthe participants, locality ofthe celebration, the festive table, traditions and customs maintained in the family. The respondents were asked to report, which cemeteries they have been visiting on the days of commemoration ofthe departed, which day it had taken place, how the graves were decorated. They were also asked to report in what other ways this day was marked (by attending a church, offering prayers at the cemetery or at home, sharing of food by the grave, conversations about the departed by the grave, having a Mass offered). They were also asked about the festive meal and its preparation, what key dishes and drinks were present, asked if family members were remembered in the course ofthe meal, what beliefs were shared and what other traditions of commemorating the departed were maintained in the family. Pupils were also asked if they had visited any graves of relatives in the recent year, asking them to note the names of the cemeteries as well.The absolute majority ofthe respondents stated having visited the graves prior or during the days of commemoration ofthe departed. Almost everyone did that with the family members, friends or relatives, making visitation of the graves a very good, and sometimes only, occasion to meet each other at least once a year. The interviewed Lithuanians reported the widest geography of cemetery attendance. They have visited graves in entire Lithuania. The Poles had visited only several cemeteries in south-east Lithuania, mostly in Vilnius region and Vilnius city, yet the Russians mostly attended Vilnius city cemetery. It is not uncommon to visit several cemeteries on the same day or in different days. In the analysis of the timing of commemoration of the departed, it is possible to argue that majority of the respondents make effort to visit graves before these occasions - on the nearest weekend. Only a fraction of the Old Believers and the Orthodox Russians do that during Radonica, the Pentecost, the Day of Dimitri, Saturday of the Venerable Fathers, yet others tend to stick to All Saints' Day. Apart from visiting graves, prayers for the departed are also offered by the grave, sometimes churches are attended and Masses offered. In these aspects the Poles can be noted. A hundred years ago one of the most important ritualistic accents of celebrating the commemoration of the departed were ritualistic meals and alms given to the poor. Currently, it is quite rare to gather around the festive table. None of the dishes reported by the representatives of the ethnic groups presented any variety, although meat dishes were dominant; no larger number of specific meals, dedicated to this occasion, were reported by the respondents as well. Non-alcoholic and alcoholic drinks also did not present any variety. Traditions of the ritualistic meal were slightly better preserved by the people of Russian nationality.Some are still practicing ritualistic meals by the graves. The respondents knew some customs and beliefs of the days of commemoration of the dead, such as being visited by the souls of the departed on All Souls' night, when they need for their path to be lit with candles, have some food left, or that one needs to eat a lot during Radonica so that the souls would not stay hungry. In the past giving away food was related to commemoration of the day of the departed among Catholics, Old Believers and the Orthodox, although today this communal tradition has been lost. The aim to get in order and decorate the graves of the dead relatives, or even the neighbouring graves of unknown people, and to remember the departed or even share food with the ghosts is obscuring the desire to help the living ones. Tradition to help the poor was not directly mentioned by any of the respondents. To a fraction of the respondents it is a special feast of the year, and to the Lithuanians especially so (they often visit cemeteries in quite remote locations), since it's an important opportunity to meet long unseen relatives. This makes it not only a family day, but also that of the relations. In the analysis ofthe days of commemoration of the departed we can see, that on a larger scale confessional, rather than ethnic distinctions are visible. Still, stronger religious feelings among the Poles should not go unnoticed as well as the remaining archaic elements in the modern customs ofthe Russians. [From the publication]

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2022-05-10 15:36:15
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