Migracijos priežastys, tendencijos ir pasekmės

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Migracijos priežastys, tendencijos ir pasekmės
Alternative Title:
Causes, trends and implications of migration
In the Journal:
Regional formation and development studies. 2020, Nr. 1 (30), p. 31-40
Keywords:
LT
Darbo jėga; Emigracija; Imigracija; Migracija; Socialinė grupė; T.
EN
Emigration; Immigration; Labor force; Labour marke; Migration; Social group.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje teoriniu aspektu analizuojamas migracijos reiškinys, remiantis įvairiomis teorijomis susisteminti skirtingi šio reiškinio aiškinimai. Migraciją aiškinančiose teorijose skiriami mikro-, makro- ir mezolygmenys, o tarp dažniausia minimų migracijos priežasčių – ekonominiai motyvai dėl darbo jėgos apmokėjimo bei paklausos ir pasiūlos skirtumų tarp šalių. Migracija, kaip ekonominis- socialinis reiškinys, savaime nėra nei blogas, nei geras. Atsižvelgiant į mastą ir šalies padėtį šio reiškinio atžvilgiu formuojasi teigiamos ar neigiamos pasekmės. Migracija vienai šaliai gali daryti neigiamą įtaką, kitai – teigiamą. Pirmą kartą nuo Lietuvos nepriklausomybės atgavimo, 2018 m. pastebimos ryškios imigracijos augimo ir emigracijos mažėjimo tendencijos: emigracijos mastai sumažėjo iki 32,9 tūkst. asmenų per metus, tuo tarpu imigracija išaugo iki 28,9 tūkst. asmenų per metus. Vertinant išankstinius 2019 m. duomenis, pirmąkart fiksuojamas teigiamas migracijos saldo (10,8 tūkst. asmenų). Šalyje vyksta kardinalūs asmenų judėjimo pokyčiai, susiduriama su reikšminga darbo jėgos imigracija. Todėl Lietuva, kaip šalis „priėmėja“, turi pradėti analizuoti ir imigracijos poveikį darbo rinkai (nedarbo lygiui, darbo užmokesčiui), ekonomikai, demografijai, socialiniam saugumui, tautiniam tapatumui, politiniams pokyčiams ir net nacionaliniam saugumui. [Iš leidinio]

ENScientific problem. After 2004, the EU’s enlargement became a topical issue for new members: initially, international migration was considered a way out of unemployment. Over 15 years later, the phenomena have changed, such as transformations of the EU (growing integration and Brexit), the convergence of living standards between EU countries, and opening the borders to third countries. These changes have led to changes in the scale, direction, objectives, nature and impact of migration. Lithuanians, who have long been known for their wandering lifestyle, have experienced several waves of emigration since the Middle Ages. After the restoration of independence in 1990, emigration became one of the most common socio-economic issues in the country. In 2004, as a result of EU membership, Lithuania immediately took the leading position in terms of relative emigration. The relevance of the theme is reflected in research from 2007-2011 and studies on the impact of emigration on the national economy. Recently, however, experts have increasingly emphasised the growing impact of immigration not only on the country’s economy. The growing economy, rising living standards, rising wages and emerging labour shortages in certain sectors call for a discussion and analysis not only of the impact of emigration but also of immigration on the country’s economy and other areas, such as demography, social well-being, and others. Research methods: applied comparative analysis of sources of research literature and research publications, synthesis, systematisation, logical analysis, statistical data analysis, and graphic representation of data. The study showed that migration as an economic-social phenomenon in itself is neither good nor bad. Depending on the scale and the situation of a particular country, the phenomenon has positive and negative consequences.Migration can have a negative impact on one country, and at the same time a positive impact on another. In 2018, for the first time since the restoration of Lithuania’s independence, there was a marked increase in immigration, and a decrease in emigration, whereby the volume of emigration decreased to 32,900 immigrants a year, and immigration rose to 28,900 a year. Evaluating the pre-2019 figures, it was the first time a positive net migration (10,800 people) was recorded. The country is undergoing radical changes in the movement of migration, and faces significant labour immigration. Therefore, Lithuania needs to start measuring and analysing the impact of immigration as a country that is a ‘receiver’ for the labour market (unemployment, wages), economy, demography, social security, national identity, political change, and even national security. [From the publication]

ISSN:
2029-9370
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Updated:
2021-02-02 19:06:57
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