Heinrichas Theodoras von Schönas: ryšiai su masonais

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Heinrichas Theodoras von Schönas: ryšiai su masonais
Alternative Title:
Heinrich Theodor von Schön: relations with Masons
In the Journal:
Archivum Lithuanicum. 2019, t. 21, p. 127-146
Heinrichas Theodoras von Schönas; Masonai; Lituanistinė veikla; Rytų Prūsija.
Heinrich Theodor von Schön; Masons; Lithuanistic activity; Eastern Prussia.
Summary / Abstract:

ENThis text draws attention to the so-called Freemasonry movement, which intensified and expanded in Europe in the 18th century. Characterised by freedom of thought and culture, as well as an abundance of ideas, the Age of Enlightenment influenced the mentality of educated intellectuals in the 18th and 19th centuries. Therefore, it is only natural that a large number of intellectuals were members of different Masonic organisations. By promoting the moral development of people, Masons regarded education as one of their main goals. Among them was Fieinrich Theodor von Schön (1773-1856), a prominent politician, Prussian statesman, and well-known figure in education and culture, as well as President of the Gumbinnen district in East Prussia and later Oberpresident (the Chief President) of East and West Prussia. Under his administration, many important reforms related to East Prussia were carried out. Schön became a member of the Masonic Society at the age of 20 (1795). Schön's Masonry is undoubtedly an important element in a careful examination of his activities related to Prussia. Possible reasons behind his decision to became a member of the Freemasonry were the encouragement he received from his father Johann Theodor Schön (1744-1796), who was also a member of a few Masonic lodges, or due to the fact that other professors at the University of Königsberg also belonged or were closely related to the Masonic Society (Christian Jakob Kraus, 1753-1807; Friedrich Leopold von Schrötter, 1743-1815; Theodor Anton Heinrich von Schmalz, 1760-1831 and others). The lecturers who influenced Schön's worldview might also have had an impact on his decision to belong to a Masonic Society. It is important to mention that throughout Schön's activities, he maintained a huge network of contacts and relationships with well-known and important Prussian figures, who were members of different Masonic lodges at that time. Masonic echoes are found in Schön's corres.He communicated and corresponded with many well-known personalities who also belonged to various lodges in Prussia (Johann Gottfried Frey, 1762- 1831; Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt, 1769-1859; Karl August Fürst von Hardenberg, 1750-1822 and many others). Schön pursued an education policy favourable to East Prussia. He founded new elementary schools, worked to improve teaching, founded a teaching seminary in Karalene (1811) and contributed to the founding of the Society for Child Care (1827). Schön also founded a newspaper in Gumbinnen to create a connection with the people of East Prussia. These transformations put in motion by Schön are closely linked to the values declared by the Masons - the promotion of education, the improvement of society and the pursuit of philanthropic activities. [From the publication]

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2020-10-17 18:10:11
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