Architektūros idėjos tarpukaryje. 2. Modernumo sampratos

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Architektūros idėjos tarpukaryje. 2. Modernumo sampratos
Alternative Title:
Architecture ideas of the interwar period II: conceptions of modernity
In the Journal:
Archiforma. 2008, Nr. 2, p. 80-87
Keywords:
LT
Architektūra; Funkcionalizmo estetika; Funkcionalumas; Ideologija; Modern Movement judėjimas; Modernizacija; Modernizmas; Socialinis aspektas; Tarpukario architektūra; Tarpukaris; Tautinis architektūros stilius; Tautiškumas.
EN
Aesthetics of functionalism; Architecture; Functionality; Ideology; Interwar architecture; Modern Movement; Modernism; Modernization; Nacionality; National architectural style; Social aspect; The Interwar Period.
Summary / Abstract:

LTNemažą tarpukario architektūrologijos diskurso dalį sudaro "tautinio stiliaus" ideologija, tačiau architektūrinės minties pažanga, opozicija rusiškajai istorizmo mokyklai reiškėsi ir kitais požiūriais. Vienas kertinių naujosios architektūrinės kultūros dėmenų - modernizacija. Tačiau, jei "tautinio stiliaus" užuomazgų galime apčiuopti jau pačioje amžiaus pradžioje, dar veržiantis iš carinės Rusijos glėbio, tai moderniosios architektūros sampratos lūžis, kai j pirmą vietą iškeliama tektoninė-konstrukcinė struktūra, kada, H. Wölfflino terminais tariant, tapybišką stiliaus sampratą keičia linijinė, kristalizuojasi kiek vėliau. [...]. [Iš straipsnio, p. 80]

ENIn Lithuanian architecturology, the principles of the new architecture attempting to change the Russian historism school started to emerge around 1927-1931, during the period of construction recovery. Frequent speakings by architects, cultural and public figures on the importance of the new materials and standardisation, lookout for European architectural innovations (especially in Germany, England, France), popularisation of rationality aesthetics witnessed tangible architectural transformations of the worldview. These ideas, however, have never become the dominating phenomenon of architectural culture. Next to them, rhetoric of "national style" existed, the conception of historism cherished by the first architecture masters of independent Lithuania in the role of the style expressing architecture representiveness also remained important fora long time. Despite the fact that the quantity of the designed edifices fully meeting the new ideas of the Modern Movement was not very great in Lithuania, overview of the press of that time allows concluding that architects were rather closely following the international architecture processes and these were the aforementioned processes they most often related the vision of architecture progress to. Such figures as K. Reisonas, A. Šalkauskis, S. Stulginskis, A. Novickis, F. Bielinskis, V. Švipas and others could be mentioned as the persons having made the most considerable contribution to the development of the modern thought. In some cases, the Western theories acquire their own interpretations where modernisation intertwines with local, national motifs, whereas functionality interlaces with monumental historism. On the other hand, modernisation processes often identified with Americanisation and continually accelerating daily rhythm are treated ambiguously, i.e. ones were admired by them in some way, whereas others envisaged a danger to lose traditional values.The plan of "brickwork Lithuania" developed in 1937, which along with the direct goal to increase brickwork construction by 10 % each year also contained the dimension giving an aesthetic and social sense, should be mentioned as one of the most vivid forms of contact between political consciousness and architectural modernisation. Besides, a certain intersection between modernisation and architectural policy could be groped in discussions on stricter functional zoning of cities and towns the necessity whereof is grounded in terms of sanitation, fire safety and aesthetics. Conception of "City/Garden" in the interwar press is also introduced by the official persons as a development aim of a right and "modern" city. Furthermore, the press publishes broad discussions on the colonies of cheap apartments. However, both in political promises and theoretical publications, a striving still closely related to agrarian mentality, i.e. to develop the colonies of not apartment houses but farmstead-type houses dominated. Upon summarising the spread of the modern thought, we could define a certain watershed between the modern world perceived in the abstract, theoretical tendencies of the European Modernism realised deep enough, and our own modernisation that in the interwar imagination in most cases is an integral part of practical urban management works. On the other hand, although such political/social decisions as a city/garden, colonies of cheap apartments, functional zoning, the plan of "brickwork Lithuania" were unable to implant stronger stylistic self-consciousness, they were closely related to the new manifestations of the architecture theory, and implementation of the decisions could change architectural view of cities/towns fundamentally. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-4710
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Updated:
2020-12-17 20:22:37
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