Zakopanės stiliaus architektūra Vilniuje ir jo apylinkėse

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Zakopanės stiliaus architektūra Vilniuje ir jo apylinkėse
Alternative Title:
Zakopane style architecture in Vilnius and Vilnius surroundings
In the Journal:
Archiforma. 2008, Nr. 2, p. 49-61
Apylinkės; Architektūra; Interjeras; Medinė architektūra; Neoromantinė tendencija; Stanislavas Vitkevičius; Vilnius; Vilnius ir Vilniaus apylinkės; Zakopanės stilius.
Architecture; Interior; Neoromanticism tendency; Stanislaw Witkiewicz; Surroundings; Vilnius; Vilnius and Vilnius surroundings; Wooden architecture; Zakopane style.
Summary / Abstract:

LTXX a. antrame dešimtmetyje kartu su neoromantine tendencija į Lietuvą atkeliavo Zakopanės stilius. Vilų medinė architektūra atspindėjo romantizmo estetiką ir pasaulėžiūrą, architektūra įkūnijo romantišką visuomenės nuotaiką. Tuo laikotarpiu buvo toleruojama ir interpretuojama visų epochų ir stilių dvasia, bet joje buvo gausu vietinių tradicijų bruožų. Zakopanės stilius Lietuvoje plačiai nepaplito, tačiau vis dar galima aptikti šio stiliaus architektūros pavyzdžių. Kol dar visai nesunyko, būtina juos nuodugniai ištirti, įvertinti ir apsaugoti. [...]. [Iš straipsnio, p. 49]

ENAt the end of the XIX C., Poland witnessed the birth of a new stylistic tendency of architecture and applied art grounded on stylisation of forms characteristic of buildings and carvings of the Tatra highlanders. In 1890, development of the Zakopane style was started by the artist and theoretician Stanislavas Vitkevičius born in Žemaitija (Samogitia). In Lithuania, the Zakopane style in the role of a Neoromanticism tendency related with maturation of national self-consciousness was not researched in practice. Very few literature sources are known and they just mention that such a style was and define typical features of specific building exterior. Development of the form of Zakopane style buildings considered dwelling houses of the highlanders of Podhale region, natural environment (the Tatra) and local traditions. The main features of the style are as follows: high base of whole stones, a multitude of broken forms, steppings, projections or ledges (known in Italian as risalita), terraces decorated abundantly with motifs of plants, porches, small attic rooms, high chimneys decorated with "lace", a range of carved columns at roof finishing, gable decorated with "crown" ("lace"), arched and rectangular windows, interior ceiling beam serving as a decoration element and having no structural function (whereas it had this function in the hut of highlanders), walls constructed of hewn logs, three-part layout typical of houses of highlanders, two-floor structure and such decorations as ends of upper beams of the house frame protruding outside (in Polish, lisia kita), rays of the rising sun, decorated roof panels, different motifs of plants (lily, thistle, etc.). Buildings available in Vilnius and Vilnius region differ from Zakopane buildings by their architectural details, volume and decorative forms. The buildings suggest that they have developed together with local traditions and interacted with the Polish ones.Many things were borrowed from Neoromanticism styles, therefore, sacral architecture contains Neogothic elements such as frame construction, sharp towers, vertical emphasis of a building, arched windows and doors as well as open arcades. Architectural composition of the entirety of Zakopane buildings is very preserved, whereas in Vilnius and Vilnius region it is more incoherent as architecture has been continuously devastated by time and people. It is difficult to talk about the things not existing nowadays and having unclear appearance as drawing may represent one items but practically they could be made absolutely different. Extant examples are not sufficient to support that these are true representatives of the style, however, certain elements of buildings meet ones of the Zakopane style. Sun motifs were interpreted individually, probably referring to cultural heritage. However, the buildings had similarities to ones of the Zakopane style, for instance, roofs of the same form, the same base, similar ends of beams of the house frame. The buildings were directly affected by Neoclassicism tendencies. This fact is demonstrated by additional facade elements such as symmetrical application of columns. Zakopane style architecture is more gorgeous and more impressive, with slender proportions, naturalistic representation of plants, reminding of a hut of highlanders and residential villa at a time. Differently from Poland, in Vilnius and other places of Lithuania it gradually vanishes. Wooden heritage is poorly preserved. Funds allocated for preservation are insufficient, whereas interest of the people themselves in preservation of their own houses is indefinite, natural materials are undervalued. It is important to understand and perceive authenticity of each edifice as each of them is unique in some way, and in this particular case these are buildings of the Zakopane style in Vilnius and Lithuania. [From the publication]

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2020-12-17 20:22:37
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