Tarmės Aukštaitijos miestuose: mokėjimas, vartojimas ir kalbinės nuostatos

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Tarmės Aukštaitijos miestuose: mokėjimas, vartojimas ir kalbinės nuostatos
Alternative Title:
Knowledge and use of the local dialect and linguistic attitudes in Aukštaitija
Keywords:
LT
Daugiakalbystė; Kalbos miestuose; Tarmės miestuose; Sociolingvistika.
EN
Multilingualism; Languages in cities; Dialects in cities; Sociolinguistics.
Summary / Abstract:

LTAnalizuojami kiekybiniai apklausos duomenys apima visą Aukštaitiją su visa tarmių, patarmių ir šnektų įvairove. Šiame skyriuje daugiausia nagrinėjami 880 respondentų, gyvenančių Aukštaitijos miestuose, atsakymai. Analizuojami kokybiniai interviu reprezentuoja šiaurinę Aukštaitijos dalį, kur 2012 metų vasarą vyko projekto „Sociolingvistinis žemėlapis. Miestai ir miesteliai“ ekspedicija. Šios ekspedicijos metu iš viso 80 giluminių interviu užrašyta Pasvalyje, Biržuose, Linkuvoje, Pakruojyje. Šio skyriaus tikslas – išnagrinėti tarmių gyvybingumą Aukštaitijos miestuose. Analizuojama, ar šio regiono miestuose tarmės yra mokamos, ar vartojamos, kokiose situacijose ir su kokiais pašnekovais miestiečiai Aukštaitijoje kalba tarmiškai, koks yra tarmių prestižas, kiek tarmė miestiečiams yra svarbi, graži, susijusi su vietine tapatybe ir pan. Daugeliu atvejų Aukštaitijos regiono miestiečių kalbinis elgesys ir nuostatos gretinamos su tiek kalbiškai, tiek kultūriškai itin ryškaus etnografinio regiono – Žemaitijos – miestų situacija. [Iš straipsnio, p. 75]

ENThis chapter discusses the vitality of dialects in the towns of Aukštaitija. More specifically, it looks into the knowledge of various dialects, use of dialects in different situations and with different interlocutors, analyses the prestige of dialects and their perceived beauty or relevance to ethnic identity. The description of linguistic behaviour in urban places of this region is often contrasted with Žemaitija, another linguistically and culturally distinctive region of Lithuania. Over a half of urban residents in Aukštaitija (59%) indicate that they can speak a dialect. Clearly, these people can be viewed as bilingual speakers, because they speak the standard variety of Lithuanian and one of its dialects. However, bearing in mind the fact that Aukštaitija stretches over a larger part of Lithuania and comparing this number to 71% of residents in Žemaitija who can speak their local dialect, it is possible to conclude that dialects are gradually disappearing from the urban landscape of Aukštaitija. Out of all respondents who have admitted that they know a dialect, only 42% use it when communicating with children and only 12% speak their local dialect with their grandchildren, which suggests that the younger generation will not be speaking the dialect of their family. Furthermore, nearly one fifth (17%) of the respondents who know a dialect indicate that they never use it. It turns out that the use of dialect is restricted to private settings, namely communication with friends, family members, brothers, sisters, parents, all of whom are offsprings of one family. The use of dialects in the family, as indicated by the respondents, contributes to a better and emotionally warmer atmosphere at home and closer ties among the relatives, while the use of the standard language is considered to be inappropriate in private communication.The choice of language variety in the semi-public domain shows a preference for Standard Lithuanian, even if nearly one fifth of the respondents say that they use their local dialect in shops and 7–12% choose it when dealing with the authorities and in health care institutions. As regards the public domain, urban residents of Aukštaitija do not find Lithuanian dialects suitable for business communication, educational institutions or the mass media. Public communication, as indicated by the majority of the respondents, is associated with the standard language which is considered to be a more beautiful, valuable and accurate variant than dialects. Clearly, Standard Lithuanian is perceived as more prestigious in comparison to its dialectal varieties. The qualitative data shows that people in Aukštaitija consider their dialect to be more suitable for a sincere, friendly and intimate communication as the dialect is thought to be more natural and easier to learn. Many respondents expressed their admiration for their dialect and its uniqueness, and they also observed that a dialect is important for personal development and local identity. Over a half of the respondents agreed that young people should be encouraged to use their native dialect. It is thus obvious that dialects are still alive in urban areas of Aukštaitija, but their vitality is gradually decreasing. [From the publication]

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Updated:
2020-05-27 17:27:41
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