Mikrotonalumo konversija XX a. antroje pusėje– XXI a. Mikrointervalikos apraiškos Mārtiņšo Viļumso ir Gabrieliaus Simo Sapiegos kūryboje

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Mikrotonalumo konversija XX a. antroje pusėje– XXI a. Mikrointervalikos apraiškos Mārtiņšo Viļumso ir Gabrieliaus Simo Sapiegos kūryboje
Alternative Title:
Conversion of microtonality in the second half of the twentieth and twenty-first century manifestation of microintervals in the creations of Mārtiņš Viļums and Gabrielius Simas Sapiega
In the Journal:
Lietuvos muzikologija [Lithuanian Musicology]. 2019, 20, p. 148-166
Keywords:
LT
Mikrointervalika; Mikrochromatika; Mikrotonalumas; Postspektralizmas; Konversija; Mārtiņšas Viļumsas; Gabrielius Simas Sapiega.
EN
Microintervalics; Microchromatics; Microtonality; Post-spectralism, conversion; Mārtiņš Viļums; Gabrielius Simas Sapiega.
Summary / Abstract:

LTTyrimo objektas yra mikrointervalikos konversija XX a. antros pusės–XXI a. muzikoje. Avangardo kūryboje pradėjusios formuotis naujosios mikrointervalikos apraiškos paskatino komponavimo principų kismą, transformavo senąsias muzikos idiomas, perkeitė kūrėjo ir kūrinio santykio lauką. Siekiant detalizuoti skirtingas komponavimo technikų strategijas naudojant mikrointervalus pasitelkiamos taksonominės kategorijos: transferencija, sinkretizmas, sintezė (pagal Yayoi Uno Everett). Be to, į pirmą planą iškeliama mikrochromatikos vieta reflektuojančioje kūrėjo sąmonėje kaip istorinio, teorinio palikimo ryšių komunikacijos tinklas. Galutinis ir visapusiškai įtvirtinantis mikroprocesų konversijos ratas atskleidžia transformacijos aspekto paveiktus muzikos kūrinius kaip radikaliausias priešpriešas ne tik mikrointervalų panaudojimo strategijomis, bet ir funkcionalumo prasminėmis reikšmėmis. Siekiant atskleisti, kaip mikrosistemos transformuojasi į galutinį konversijos variantą, pasitelkiant filosofines-estetines įžvalgas ir mikrochromatikai pritaikytus analizės metodus, analizuojami Mārtiņšo Viļumso ir Gabrieliaus Simo Sapiegos kūriniai. [Iš leidinio]

ENBased on the historical and analytical investigations carried out during the research, the use of the term “microtone” can be defined through the identification of semantic and exploitational properties: Microinterval—the ratio of two pitches, with emphasis on the semitone genos when the interval is smaller than a semitone; Microchromatics—a system of pitch organization, based on the application of microintervals; Microtonality—a compositional structure based on the principles of tonal music, when microintervals are used merely as a means to update the quality of sound. Upon reviewing the manifestations of microchromatics in the process of the history of music, we gained certain insights into the evolution of the concept of the phenomenon in question as well as into the changes in its understanding and transformation in the twenty-first century: in the old musical cultures: the organization of pitches in microchromatic structures was rather a number expressing the relationship and ratio of the pitch hierarchy on the principle of both philosophical and structural thinking; in twentieth-century avant-garde: microsystems were regarded as the structural aspects of intercultural transformation by expanding the established tonal systems, based on the theoretical works on the old music, as well as by going into the heart of merely structural “micro” musical sound parameters and exposing them in the musical texture; in the music of the twenty-first century: a micro-system is understood not only as a sonoric means of expression and a system of pitch organization, but also as a new aestheticalphilosophical concept: a musical sound is equated with the concept of a "live organism" and emphatic centrism, and attempts are made to extract both the “micro” and “macro” parameters and processes hiding in the sound.In the summary and evaluation of the dissemination and the changes in microtonality from the qualitative and quantitative viewpoints, we conclude that it was specifically in the twentieth and the early twenty-first century that the phenomenon acquired new features and angles of viewing, while the changes that occurred can be regarded as a conversion of microtonality. Microsystems became established both in the avant-garde and twenty-first century music contexts. When viewing such phenomena from the compositional perspective, a merely analytical viewpoint does not suffice: we must approach a corresponding phenomenon—the thing, that is, the work of art—in which microintervals or michrochromatic systems are exploited both in the direct (analytical) and figurative (philosophical) sense. The affected works by the conversion of microtonality as the being of a substantial individual: that is not just the implementation of the idealized schemas of the thing, but also the direct expression of the meanings of the thing (the work of art). Based on the categories of the intercultural music analysis technique (proposed by Everett & Lau), upon the review of twentieth- and twenty-first-century microinterval music and the analysis of specific compositions, we can argue that, over the period in question, three manifestations of conversion and possible techniques of analysis were functioning: transference, syncretism, and synthesis: transference means aesthetic principles or a formal system without explicit references to a corresponding direct cultural sound; highlighted musical illustrativeness of microintervals without cultural quotations; literary or extramusical quotations; an aspiration to “revive” and “update” the sound; microchromatics as a structural modal element limited by the tradition of tonal music and musical material as well as pre-tonal music practices—Hába, Carrillo, Partch; well as pre-tonal music practices—Hába, Carrillo, Partch.syncretism means changing the meaning of timbre, articulation, or the tone series through the exploitation of microintervals; the perception of musical sound as the integration of a “live organism” and systemic “micro” structures; the integration of microchromatics into musical processes as a potential systemic side effect; and a rotating circle of the Oriental and Occidental viewpoints: between the recording of becoming and being—Grisey, Murail, Viļums; synthesis means recreation of a traditional musical system, form, or timbre by new musical idioms; the functioning of microchromatics as a form of amorphous intelligence; the conflict between sensuality and intelligence; the totality and expression of the elements of the language of a musical composition no longer corresponds to the finite form of the thing; an over-modal, harmonic, and thematic contour— Saariaho, Sapiega. The microintervalics in a musical composition, and especially in post-spectral music, can manifest themselves in various ways. Several key features and functions of microintervalics can be identified: 1) Direct manifestations of microintervalics: a) the microintervals obtained directly from the spectrum function in musical compositions as precise calculations; b) the precisely calculated microintervals are simplified to meanings that are much more convenient for the performer to play; c) compound microintervals can be omitted, and more simple ones written instead, although not of the same sound. 2) Indirect manifestations of microintervalics: a) through the use of different sonoric means and playing techniques, partially controlled manifestations of microintervalics are obtained for the outcome of the quality of sound; b) through the use of different sonoric means and side sounds as noises, indirect manifestations of microintervalics are obtained and are difficult to define and control in the musical texture [...]. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-9313
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2020-03-22 15:56:58
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