Orientalistinis pėdsakas misionieriaus Kristupo Lokio gyvenime ir publikacijose

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Orientalistinis pėdsakas misionieriaus Kristupo Lokio gyvenime ir publikacijose
Alternative Title:
Traces of orientalism in the life and publications of a missionary Kristupas Lokys
Notes:
Parengtas publikacijos, paskelbtos Knygotyra. 2003, t. 41, pagrindu.
Keywords:
LT
Sandora (draugija); Žemaičių ir Lietuvos apžvalga (laikraštis); Biografijos; Orientalistika; Kultūriniai ryšiai; Mažosios Lietuvos spaudos veikėjai.
Summary / Abstract:

LTOriento lietuviškieji pėdsakai pinasi iš kelių labai savitų ir gilius klodus siekiančių gijų, kurių viena veda Mažojon Lietuvon. Ją paliko lietuviai misionieriai. Vienas jų buvo Kristupas Lokys (1860–1921), 1885 m. pradėjęs mokytis žymaus evangelikų liuteronų tikybos propaguotojo ir skleidėjo Johanno Evangelisto Gosnerio (1773–1858) Berlyne įkurtoje misionierių mokykloje. Ją baigęs 1888 m. išvyko į Bengaliją ir ten dirbo 25 metus. K. Lokys ir jo žmona aktyviai reiškėsi spaudoje. Jų korespondencijose pasakojama apie čiabuvių skurdą, ligų epidemijas, europiečiams sunkiai pakeliamo klimato sąlygas. Jų rašiniuose yra daug pažintinio pobūdžio medžiagos, kuri traukė laikraščių skaitytojus. K. Lokis ne tik rašė straipsnius, bet ir savo lėšomis išleido keletą knygelių. Jos sparčiai pasklido ir tapo mėgstama lietuvių skaitytojų lektūra. Jos gerokai praplėtė Mažosios Lietuvos gyventojų suvokimą apie tolimąją Indiją ir greičiausiai sužadino domėjimąsi misijų veiklos savitumu ir prasmingumu. K. Lokio asmenybę ir spaudos darbo reikšmę galima visavertiškai suvokti tik siejant su epocha, vakarietiška misionieriavimo Oriente tradicija ir jo prasmingumo kaita XIX–XX a. sandūroje. Misionieriavimas buvo saviraiškos būdas ir galimybė. Jis formavo mąstymą ir kūrybos paskatas. Oriento patirtis turėjo neabejotinos įtakos K. Lokio dvasinei ir pilietinei pasaulėžiūrai, skatino kritiškai vertinti nelaisvų tautų padėtį ir jos priežastis, lėmė patriotinį apsisprendimą. Indija buvo jo kūrybos originalumo šaltinis. K. Lokio veikla gali tapti sąlyginiu matu, pagal kurį būtų lyginama ir modeliuojama viso lietuviškojo misijų sąjūdžio orientacija ir nustatoma jo išliekamoji vertė.

ENAn important source for the studies of oricntalistic topics is Lithuanian press of the Lithuanian part of Prussia - Lithuania Minor. It was embedded by Lithuanian missionaries who worked in the German Evangelist Lutheran missions in Africa and South-East Asia. The first one was Dovydas Didlaukis (1836-1897) who travelled to India in 1863. He worked in the missions of Bengal: Govindpur, Gosncrpur, Ranchi and others. Before the First World War, eight Lithuanians (some of them together with their families) worked in the missions in India and China. All of them maintained relations with their homeland and relatives. Some of these missionaries were gifted connoisseurs of exotic Oriental languages, creative, sensitive, and devoted personalities. From their publications in Lithuanian press of Lithuania Minor, Lithuanians of the 19th century were well acquainted with the spiritual world of the indigenous inhabitants of India, China, North and South Africa, as well as with the exotic nature of these countries. A book also played an important role in information and communication. Only during the first decade of the 20th century, Lituanian missionaries translated into their native language and published more than thirty popular books of different size and contents. Kristupas Lokys (1860-1921) was very active in the press. He spent a quarter of a century in Bengal and perceived his duty much wider than just chritianisation of the indigenous population. Lokys has established a hospital, his constant concern was to provide food and medicine, he taught agricultural methods to Indians, constructed a damb on the river to hold the water and used it for irrigation and watering cattle. The missionary won great respect of Indians, as well as a meaningful and memorable conservation of his name for his devotion and commitment.The river damb was reconstructed and modernized many times. It is standing until now and is named after Kristupas Lokys. His wife was a teacher at local schools. She taught handcraft to Indian children. The publications by Lokys in the "press of his homeland reflected the everyday life in the mission, the spiritual and material life of the local population. They allowed readers to perceive the differences of civilisations and cultures and the work among "pagans" (as all members of local beliefs were called) for the sake of "chritianisation". These publications also revealed the relations between missionaries and locals, the conditions, which were essential for the survival of newcomers from Europe, the impact of a complex environment and unusual climate. The author persistently publicised the spiritual and social injustice that English colonisation inflicted on India. The work of a missionary was a way and possbility of self-expression for Lokys. It formed his mind and stimulated creativity. The oriental experience had a clear influence on his civil and spiritual world-view, underpinned critical evaluation of the situation and causes of enslaved nations, determined the patriotic choice. India became the source of originilaty in his works. After return to the homeland (1914), Lokys became and active member of Lithuanian national and political movement. [Knygotyra. 2003, t. 41]

Permalink:
https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/83199
Updated:
2020-03-08 16:48:16
Metrics:
Views: 44
Export: