Originali Kristijono Donelaičio pasakėčia "Rudikis jomarkininks"

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Originali Kristijono Donelaičio pasakėčia "Rudikis jomarkininks"
Alternative Title:
Original fable "Rudikis Jomarkininks” by Kristijonas Donelaitis
In the Journal:
Senoji Lietuvos literatūra. 2012, 34, p. 245-322
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Literatūra; Pasakėčia; Kristijonas Donelaitis; Kristijonas Donelaitis; Lithuanian literature; Fable.
Kristijonas Donelaitis; Literatūra / Literature; Pasakėčia.
Fable; Lithuanian literature.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje pateikiama išsami Kristijono Donelaičio pasakėčios „Rudikis“ studija. Antikos, Viduramžių, Renesanso ir Apšvietos laikų pasakėčių kontekste tiriamas Donelaičio pasakėčios siužeto originalumas. Pateikiamas pasakėčios eilėdaros, leksikos, stilistikos ir kompozicijos tyrimas. Stengiamasi nustatyti pasakėčios teksto santykį su „Metais”, su kitomis pasakėčiomis, su Donelaičio pirmtakų ir amžininkų kūryba. Tyrimo medžiaga suteikia galimybę padaryti išvadas, atskleidžiančias būdingiausius pasakėčios „Rudikis jomarkininks“ bruožus, tradicinius ir originalius jos ypatumus. [Iš leidinio]

ENNor among the Antiquity, nor among the Medieval, neither among the Renaissance or Enlightenment fables of various nations there were found equally the same subject as "Rudikis Jomarkininks". Some common features this fable shares only with the fable by Avianus about a wild boar. Thus, until no other evidence, it would be correct to think that Donelaitis himself created a subject of "Rudikis Jomarkininks". The fable "Rudikis Jomarkininks" especially underlines an Enlightenment thought that a reason and understanding determines a proper behavior. In the all text of the fable the poet set notions related to thinking. Totally there are 17 words linked to a process of thinking and reasoning. Actually five times the words "mislijo" (thought), "mislydams", "dingodams" (thinking) are set to the beginning of a hexameter verse, thus, it shows an objective of a poet to especially emphasize them. A dog behaves badly because it lacks understanding. Consequently, in this fable Donelaitis tells the same as Immanuel Kant idea of aggrandizing mind characteristic to the Age of Enlightenment. The idea of aggrandizing mind is especially emphasized in the moral. In the moral the poet sums up, generalizes given views and thoughts, but goes further. More than a half of the words (9 out of 17) meaning a notion of reasoning are concentrated here. A human being is a clever one that is why in the case when he has angry designs, when commits evil to the other, his misconduct makes his soul dirty and carries a big secular punishment: "nupelno grieką ir galges" (RJ39). Donelaitis equals reprobate thieves to animals in such a way continuing an idea of dethronement of rational being. In other words, in the moral Donelaitis shows that a human being not taking into consideration given to him possibility to behave reasonably or, according to Kant, hesitating to behave reasonably degrades to animal. However, the poet suggests a.The research material shows that for the fable "Rudikis Jomarkininks" do not fit the proposition not supported with evidence wayfaring since the Nesselmann time from one book to other that fables stand behind of "Metai" in respect of language. A rate of barbarisms (they comprise nearly 15% of all the words of the fable) in this fable is lower than the general rate of barbarisms in all the creations by Donelaitis: Kabelka points out to the fact that the words from other languages make nearly 18% of the words used by the poet. There are very few irregular forms or combinations in this fable. Instead of current inessive the preposition "ant" (on) with genitive there was used once, but it was characteristic for "Metai" as well. Also, the poet used a verb "laikyti" (to regard) with a preposition "per" (as) and a nominal accusative in "Metai". No more critics can be applied to "Rudikis Jomarkininks" in respect to grammaticality of language. "Rudikis Jomarkininks" is the skillfully written fable. To apply a fable theory by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing to it, it would look that it should be classified as a complex fable, because it has a twofold degree of generalization: on the one hand, it is grounded on a realistic image of a permanently thieving, being gripped, being thrashed dog, which can easily be prescinded applying it to a some sneak-thief known in reality. On the other hand, apart of this generalization the other one takes place as well: the text of the fable contains an implied proposition characteristic to the Age of Enlightenment about duty of a man, rational being, to conduct himself according to reason and to keep straight. Directly this proposition is underlined in the moral. [From the publication]

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