Rusijos kariuomenės išvedimas, 1990-1993

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knyga / Book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Rusijos kariuomenės išvedimas, 1990-1993
Publication Data:
Vilnius : Generolo J. Žemaičio Lietuvos karo akademija, 2005.
344, [2] p
Lietuvos kariuomenės istorija
Bibliografija ir asmenvardžių rodyklė.
Įvadas — Okupacinė kariuomenė Lietuvoje — Lietuvos Nepriklausomybės atkūrimas ir pirmieji žingsniai bandant išspręsti okupacinės kariuomenės buvimo Lietuvoje — Derybos dėl sovietinės (Rusijos) kariuomenės išvedimo iš Lietuvos Respublikos teritorijos bei šios kariuomenės išvedimo pradžia: Pasirengimas deryboms; Derybos su SSRS; Derybos su Rusija — Lietuvos piliečių, tarnaujančių sovietinėje kariuomenėje, problemos sprendimas — Sovietinės (Rusijos) kariuomenės buvimo Lietuvoje keliamos problemos bei jos išvedimo procesas iki išvedimo grafiko pasirašymo (1990-03-11 - 1992-09-08) — Rusijos kariuomenės karinių dalinių blokada siekiant neleisti jų papildyti naujokais — Rusijos kariuomenės organizuoto išvedimo laikotarpis: Pirmasis etapas (1992-09-08 - 12-31); Antrasis etapas (1993-01-01 - 03-31); Trečiasis etapas (1993-04-01 - 06-30); Ketvirtasis etapas (1993-07-01 - 08-31); Rusijos kariuomenės likučių išvedimas — Perimtas iš Rusijos kariuomenės turtas — Išvados — Pabaiga — Reziume — Priedai— Šaltiniai ir literatūra — Pavardžių rodyklė.
20 amžius; Austrija (Austria); Klaipėda. Klaipėdos kraštas (Klaipeda region); Prancūzija (France); Vilnius. Vilniaus kraštas (Vilnius region); Lietuva (Lithuania); Rusija (Россия; Russia; Russia; Rossija; Rusijos Federacija; Rossijskaja Federacija); Kariuomenė / Army.
Summary / Abstract:

LTReikšminiai žodžiai: Kariuomenė; Lietuvos Respublika; Okupacija; Rusijos kariuomenė; Rusijos kariuomenės išvedimas; Sovietų Sąjungos ginkluotosios pajėjos; Army; Lithuania; Occupation; Republic of Lithuania; Soviet Union Militar Forces; Withdrawal of Russian army; Withdrawal of the Russian Army; Rusija (Russia).

ENPolitical situation in Europe, complicated as it was, continued deteriorating in mid-forties. Inadvertent policy of the West left Hitler free hand to annex Austria. Further in Munich, September 1938, England and France yielded to Sudeten province annexation and thus paved the way for occupation of Czechoslovakia, 15 March 1939. A few days later, March 23, Klaipėda province, the guarantors for which again stood England and France, had been torn from Lithuania. The Munich plot and further development of events evidenced the policy of European politicians to direct Germany's attention eastward. Under the circumstances the USSR Government on 17 June 1939, proposed England and France to sign agreements of mutual assistance. Political and military negotiations that followed the same summer in Moscow were not productive and failed primarily because of Moscow's movements in its foreign policy. At the time in question Germany in its turn explored the possibilities of rapprochement with Mos¬ cow, and by directions of Stalin negotiations with England and France had been broken off. As a result the USSR and Germany had entered into and on 23 August 1939, concluded negotiations by signing non-aggression agreement. The agreement was a typical one, except for a secret protocol on spheres of influence in Eastern Europe. According to the protocol Baltic States, except Lithuania, had been ceded to the USSR. On 1 September 1939, after Germany's attack on Poland, World War II broke out. England and France, in response declared war on Germany, but did not render any assistance to Poland, though. Immediately on September 17, the Soviet Union launched its attack on Poland, broke down the resistance of the Polish army and occupied the country.As soon as September 28, the Soviet Union and Germany concluded another agreement on friendship and frontiers between the Soviet Union and Germany again supplemented by secret protocols. According to these protocols Lithuania, contrary to the protocol of August 23, except Užnemunė - the territory on the left bank of the river Nemunas, had fallen to the share of the Soviet Union. Given free hand Moscow immediately set to implementing "special means" provided by secret protocols. Corned by aggressive pressure Lithuania signed the "Agreement of mutual assistance and on reinstatement of Vilnius and Vilnius district to Lithuania", 10 October 1939. Following the agreement as early as November 15, the 16t h special corps, about 20,000 soviet soldiers, was stationed in Lithuania. The arrival of troops succeeded an ultimatum presented to Lithuania on 14 June 1940. Mendaciously accusing Lithuania for the breach of the agreement the Soviet side demanded that Lithuania should admit "copious enough" contingent of the Soviet Army. The Government of Lithuania pressed by the big power submitted to the ultimatum and ordered national forces against resistance. As soon as June 15, Soviet Army troops, well over 150,000 soldiers, crossed the borders of Lithuania and within 24 hours occupied the whole country. Immediately after occupation, the national army had been destroyed except a few units that were incorporated into the Red Army under the 29t h riflemen territorial corps.On the onset of the USSR-Germany war, the Red Army retreated from Lithuania but in 1944, successfully advancing westward, marched in again. This time however, Soviet occupiers took no attempts to disguise their true plans like agreements or diplomacies. Through Kremlin henchmen in the Government of the Lithuanian SSR Soviet occupiers legalised appropriation of big areas for army needs with no respect to national concerns, economic demands, environmental or whatsoever requirements. Further on the Soviet army controlled and managed the country beyond any limits. The democratically elected Supreme Council of Lithuania on March 11, 1990 re-established the independent state of Lithuania. Among major tasks of the new state was the issue of international recognition, and the presence of foreign army was the biggest hindrance on the way to recognition. The author of this work aims to look into and scrutinise the process of the withdrawal of the Soviet army from Lithuania. At the time in question the staff of the Soviet Army on the territory of Lithuania numbered to 34,6 thousand. Of them: about 7,3 thousand officers; 3,6 thousand warrant officers; 22,2 thousand soldiers and sergeants; and over 1,4 thousand cadets. There were about 1000 tanks, 180 air-crafts, and 1901 armoured cars. That made up five divisions or, in terms of arms subordination, 295 separate combat and logistic units. Moscow of course has been pursing the policy of non-recognition, and Lithuania has been exerting every effort to draw Moscow into bilateral negotiations. Despite Lithuania's effort, Moscow in June 1991 attempted military coup d'etat but Lithuania, supported by world democracies, stood firm and defended its freedom. [From the publication]

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