Rusnės pirklių anckerių kultūrinė veikla XIX a. pabaigoje : archeologinių senienų rinkimas

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Rusnės pirklių anckerių kultūrinė veikla XIX a. pabaigoje: archeologinių senienų rinkimas
Alternative Title:
Cultural activity of the ancker timber-merchants from Rusnė (Russ) in the late 19th century: the archaeological artefact collection
In the Journal:
Lietuvos archeologija. 2009, t. 35, p. 37-52
Pirkliai Anckeriai, Rusnės; Lietuvių literatūros draugija; Prūsijos senovės draugija; Archeologiniai tyrinėjimai.
Ancker merchants, Rusnė; Lithuanian Literary Society; Altertumsgesellschaft Prussia; Amateur archaeology.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnis skirtas vienam Rusnės medienos pirklių Anckerių kultūrinės veiklos aspektui - mėgėjiškam domėjimuisi krašto priešistore ir archeologinėmis senienomis. 1879 m. tėvas Johannas Heinrichas Anckeris irsimus Emstas Heinrichas Anckeris tampa Lietuvių literatūros draugijos Tilžėje nariais. Šios draugijos leidinyje „Mitteihmgen der Litauischen litterarischen Gesellschaft" trumpai aprašoma senienos, kurias išsavo rinkinio draugijos narių dėmesiui pateikė Emstas Heinrichas Anckeris. 1887 m. šie radiniai ar jų dalis buvo padovanota Karaliaučiaus „Prussia" muziejui. E. H. Anckeris taip pat tampa Prūsijos senovės draugijos nariu. 1891 m. broliai Emstas ir Theodoras Anckeriai supažindino profesorių A. Bezzenbergerį su jiems žinomais archeologiniais objektais Šilutės apskrityje. Deja, liko nežinoma, kokius archeologinius radinius E. H. Anckeris saugojo savo namuose Šyškrantėje (Rusnė). [Iš leidinio]

ENSeveral generations of the Ancker timber-merchant activity from the 18th century onwards. The history family, who lived in Šyškrantė, a village on Rusnė of this family would be worthy of special historical island (Schieszkrandt, Russ), influenced local study. In the meantime I would like to draw attention provincial life in the northern borderlands of East to scattered sources from 19th century publications, Prussia through their economic, social, and cultural which testify to the interest of Ancker family members in collecting archaeological artefacts. Ernst Heinrich Ancker (1848-1935), the last male owner of the house in Syškrantė, was probably the family member who felt the greatest passion for history and was the eagerest to collect various antiquities and artefacts. He enjoyed the background of a good environment from the house inherited from his grandfather and his father. In 1829, the grandfather, Johann Friedrich Ancker (1792-1858), became one of the first subscribers of the Preussische Provinzial- Blatter. This journal published an article by his maternal grandfather, W. E. Beerbohm (1786-1865), about archaeological finds on the Curonian Spit in the early 1830s. The father of Ernst Heinrich, Johann Heinrich Ancker (1820-1881) kept his house open for educated society, even serving as hospitable host for politically important guests. Along with his son, Ernst Heinrich (1848-1935), he became a member of the Lithuanian Literary Society, which was founded in 1879 in Tilsit. After his father's death in 1881, Ernst Heinrich Ancker was active in only this society. He was interested in amateur archaeology. According to the short descriptions of the meetings of the Lithuanian Literary Society, which were published in its journal, Mitteilungen der Litauischen litterarischen Gesellschaft, Ernst Heinrich Ancker presented his archaeological and numismatic collection in Tilsit in 1882.Among these artefacts were finds from the Adl. Heydekrug' cemetery and a brooch from Vėžaičiai. A few years later (in 1887), E. H. Ancker sent finds from Adl. Heydekrug' and Vėžaičiai as a gift to the Prussia Museum in Konigsberg and in 1889 G. Bujack partly published this set of artefacts. The archaeological collection of the Lithuanian Literary Society in Tilsit was complemented by E. H. Ancker's donation of amber items. After the death of the supervisor of the Tilsit collection, the Society decided in 1896 to hand all of its archaeological finds over to the Prussia Museum. Meanwhile Ancker became a member of Altertumsgesellschaft Prussia in Konigsberg (as early as 1892). Brief information about supplements to the Prussia Museum's collection attest that in 1887 he also donated stone tools from Nida, finds from 2—4th and 11—12th century cemeteries in the vicinity of Šilutė (Heydekrug), as well as iron weapons and tools found at the Tilsit hill fort site. In 1891 A. Bezzenberger came to Šilutė District to conduct archaeological digs. The brother of Ernst Heinrich Ancker, Theodor Hugo Ancker, helped to find a way through the moors to the site of Aukštumala (Augstumaler Moor). On this occasion Theodor H. Ancker was allowed by Bezzenberger to take some of the finds from Metirkviečiai (Metterquetten) cemetery and a hoard of silver coins from the Tilsit area to the Prussia Museum. In 1891 Bezzenberger excavated the cemetery (barrow?) in Armalėnai (Hermannlohnen) which had already been explored in part by Ernst H. Ancker some years earlier. We can only presume that Armalėnai and what the sources call Adl. Heydekrug' may be the same site.Ernst Heinrich Ancker was an amateur who was not interested in providing more detailed data about the circumstances of his finds. In the last years of 19th century, he donated a few items to the Prussia Museum, but in the early 20th century the Ancker name disappears from the list of donors, even though Ernst H. Ancker remained a member of Altertumsgesellschaft Prussia. What kinds of archaeological artefacts were kept in the private collection in Ancker's house remains unknown. The main residence was sold and demolished in 1937, two years later after Ancker's death. The Second World War brought a complete end to the Ancker family's history in Rusnė. The cultural activity of the members of the Ancker family accompanied their charity work and business interests. Their amateur interest in archaeology was part of their eagerness to study the region's history and ethnography. These interests distinguish the Anckers from the other rich merchants of the time. [From the publication]

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