Moterų vaidmuo Lietuvos vokiečių organizacijų veikloje XX a. 3-4 dešimtmečiuose

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Moterų vaidmuo Lietuvos vokiečių organizacijų veikloje XX a. 3-4 dešimtmečiuose
Alternative Title:
Role of women in german organizations in Lithuania in the 3rd and 4th decades of the 20th century
In the Journal:
Lyčių studijos ir tyrimai. 2009, 7, p. 46-57
20 amžius.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje analizuojama moterų veikla Lietuvos vokiečių organizacijose XX a. 3-4 dešimtmetyje. Aptariamas moterų vaidmuo vokiečių kultūrinėse, švietėjiškose bei politinėse organizacijose. Atskleidžiami atskiri pavyzdžiai, kai moterys buvo įtrauktos į slaptą veiklą. Moterų visuomeninė veikla autonominiame Klaipėdos krašte ir likusioje Lietuvos dalyje analizuojama atskirai dėl skirtingų politinių sąlygų bei skirtingo organizacijų vadovų vyrų požiūrio į moterų veiklos reikšmę. Tyrimas atskleidžia, kiek Vokietijos moterų organizacijų darbo modelis buvo perimtas Lietuvoje. Moterų aktyvumas Klaipėdos krašto vokiečių kultūrinėse bei politinėse organizacijose buvo buvo minimalus, susijęs su tiesioginėmis jų pareigomis (raštininkės, mašininkės), o ne su politiniais įsitikinimais ar nacionalsocialistine ideologija. Lietuvos vokiečių Kulturverbandui tapus nacistine organizacija suaktyvėjo moterų ir merginų dalyvavimas organizacijos veikloje. Lietuvos Kulturverbando vadovai, priešingai Vokietijoje vyravusioms nuostatoms eliminuoti moteris iš visuomeninio gyvenimo, daug labiau pasitikėjo merginų vadovių sugebėjimais, jų politinio darbo svarba, pavesdavo joms įvairias užduotis, įtraukė į slaptas nacistines organizacijas. Tuo tarpu Klaipėdos krašte vadovaujančių nacistinių partijų vadai, aklai sekdami VNSDP vadovavimo stiliumi, didesnio pasitikėjimo moterimis neparodė, jos nebuvo įtrauktos į jokias svarbesnes politines užduotis.Reikšminiai žodžiai: Lietuvos vokiečiai; Klaipėdos kraštas [Klaipeda region]; Moterų judėjimai; Nacionalsocializmas; Lietuvos vokiečių kultūrinė sąjunga (Kulturverbandas); Vokietijos nacionalsocialistinė darbininkų partija (VNSDP; Nacionalistų partija; Nacių partija; Nazi Party; National Socialist German Workers' Party).

ENThis research seeks to define the role of Women in German organizations in Lithuania in the 3rd and 4th decades of the 20th century. The main tasks of the research are to detect the relations of women organizations with Germany and to analyse the different position of women in German organizations. The subject of the research is the analysis of the achievements of German women in social, cultural and political fields. The author uses methods of analysis of primary sources and literature. The activity of women in German organizations in Lithuania was under the influence of Nazi ideology and the activities of women organizations in Germany. Thus it is necessary to dwell upon the political situation and position of women in Germany. During the 3rd decade of 20th century German women took part in various national, cultural and religious organizations. The highest rate of activity of German women was observed after World War I, until 1933. In 1933 as A. Hitler came into power, women were eliminated from social and political life. The Nazi party removed women from their positions in state, science, health care and educational institutions. Despite A. Hitler's official speeches in which he often marked that 'Woman-mother is the most important citizen in his state' this declaration was valid only for healthy and politically loyal women. Those women who took part in anti Nazi movement or in any other ways did not fit Nazi criteria were sent for sterilization or death in the KZ lagers. Only 5 percent of Nazi party members were women and they were not allowed to occupy high positions in the hierarchy of the Nazi party. Thousands of women in Germany became faithful Nazi ideology followers and joined Nazi women organizations. In the 3rd decade of the 20th century the community of Germans in Lithuania (including Klaipėda region) consisted of about 100 thousand people who were well integrated into Lithuanian society.The primary aims of the community were to retain mother tongue and traditions. Until the end of 3rd decade their relations with Germany were quite weak but became rather close at the beginning of 4th decade as starting with 1933 the Nazi party inspired the activity of Germans in Lithuania. In the 3rd decade of the 20th century there were few German women organizations in Lithuania: 'German Charity Organization' and 'German Women Association'. Young women and girls joined 'German Evangelic Youth Union' which was in operation in all bigger towns. Women were mostly influenced by evangelic priests who were in charge of all religious organizations. Women liked to sing in choirs, took part in charity. Until 1933 most Germans were involved in cultural - social work. Only few Germans got attracted by illegal activities and became German spies, made contacts with Nazi organizations. The biggest German organization in Lithuania was 'Kulturverband der Deutschen Litauens' (hereinafter Kulturverband). Quite a few women were members of this organization and several of them became the chairwomen of its units. Starting with 1933 German Kulturverband in Lithuania adopted some Nazi structures and became a Nazi organization that was in close relation with German public institutions. A number of young women were involved into the Nazi organization. E. Maševskaitė, A. Stangebergerytė, H. Lemkytė, L. Bonakerytė and others attended a set of lectures in special Nazi schools in Germany and became leaders of Nazi organizations for girls and youth. They gave lectures according to "Reichsmutterschule " programme, which included health and household courses as well as German propaganda for women. Anna Minuth and Schachno-Dowgin became German agents, collaborated with members of the Nazi party in Lithuania, collected secret information and finally got arrested.Though there were quite a few women in close relationship with the Nazi organization, the majority still had a dim image of The Third Reich and Nazi ideology despite the fact that they were educated and read German periodic which highlighted the political situation in Germany. In 1939 the leaders of Kulturverband were instructed to consolidate the German community and to take part in the expatriation of Germans from Lithuania. Some women were also involved in agitation work and were under surveillance by Lithuanian police. The role of German women in organizations in Klaipėda region was rather weak as all higher political or cultural positions were occupied by men. Few women were involved into illegal work and relations with German secret service but still there were a couple who became members of Nazi organizations and served as secretaries or messengers. Wives of Nazi movement leaders (Mrs. Rademacher, Mrs. Bertuleit, Mrs. Neumann and Mrs. Sass) admired the Nazi ideology and showed interest in their husbands' political activities. However, German women became members of Nazi organizations only at the beginning ofl939 when a full structure ofNazi organization was established in Klaipėda and the region was prepared for annexation to Germany. The leaders of Kulturverband relied on women, never tried to eliminate them from social work, entrusted them with important tasks and involved into secret operations. On the other hand, German women in Klaipėda region were kept aside from any political activities and they were supposed to manifest obedience to the leaders of German community. [From the publication]

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