Kernavės plėtotes samprata

Direct Link:
Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Kernavės plėtotes samprata
Alternative Title:
Conception of Kernavė development
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2001, t. 23, p. 109-121. Lietuvos želdynų ateitis : mokslinės konferencijos, skirtos Palangos parko šimtmečiui, įvykusios Palangoje 1997 m. rugsėjo mėn. 5-7 d
Keywords:
LT
Kernavė; miestelis; planavimas; aplinka; kraštovaizdžio architektūra; urbanistika; istoriniai nacionaliniai parkai; istorinė vietovė; urbanistinė raida.
EN
Kernavė; ladscape architecture; urnanistics; historical national parcs; historical place; urbanistic development.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje yra analizuojama Kernavės – miestelio, esančio 30 km į šiaurės vakarus nuo Vilniaus – plėtotės samprata. Šio darbo apmatai buvo pradėti 1996 m. rengiant Kernavės bendrąjį planą seniūnijos užsakymu. Atsižvelgiant į gamtos sąlygas ir kultūros paveldą, siekta nustatyti miestelio plėtojimo principus, kuriuos būtų galima panaudoti naujajame Kernavės bendrajame plane. Miestelis turėtų būti plėtojamas, leidžiantis į Neries slėnį, vakarų kryptimi, o nuotekų valykla statoma – vakariniame Kernavės pakraštyje. Miestelio plėtojimo būdai didmiesčio pavyzdžiu, sudarkė Kernavę. To pasėkoje miestelyje atsirado daug nenaudingų plotų, pablogėjo susisiekimas ir orientavimasis erdvėje, Kernavė neteko savitų bruožų. Tik senųjų pastatų saugojimu ar jų atstatinėjimu negali būti išlaikytas miestelio savitumas. Pirmiausiai turėtų būti atstatyta Kernavės struktūra ir ji plėtojama pagal tradicinius miesto planavimo principus.

ENKernavė is about 30 km to the north west of Vilnius at Sudervė-Musninkai road, near the river valley of the Neris. Nowadays Kernavė is a beautiful historical place. According to scientific works, during the rule of Mindaugas Kernavė was one of his most important castles. Fifteen years after the death of King Mindaugas Kernavė is mentioned in the written historical sources as the main castle of the Great Duke Traidenis. At the end of the 14th century Kernavė was included in "the list of Russian cities". The written sources of the Crusaders mention many roads, which lead to Vilnius and to the heart of Lithuania through Kernave. The fords of the Neris used at that time at Kernavė played an important role in traffic. There were 4000 inhabitants in Kernavė. The reinforcement system of the town was formed by five mounds. The upper part of the town: the block of artisans and merchants was on the Castle Hill, but the biggest territory (the area of some ha), was occupied by the lower town which goes up to the south of the mounds by the Neris. It was protected by swamps from the west and the east. The town had a thick net of streets. There were fenced of farmsteads in it. The archaeological findings show, that there were intensive commercial relations with neighbouring countries. In 1390, the Order of the Knights of the Cross allied at that time to the Great Duke of Lithuania Vytautas, during the march to Lithuania, burned to the ground the lower town and reinforcements of Kernavė. The mounds lost their defensive role. The town was moved to its present place, but Kernavė never regained its former importance.Now Kernavė has 300 inhabitants. The town is a small centre of Širvintos region. There is a church, a primary school, a cultural centre and a museum. Since 1990 at the place of the mounds and the ancient town (the area of 196,2 ha) there is The State Archaeological and Historical Museum Reservation of Kernavė. It is hoped that the development of the town will be enlivened by the tourists and holidaymakers to come. They will be attracted by the beautiful nature and the historical heritage. They will need good service, comfortable, clean and nice surroundings, Method of work In 1996, while designing the Master Plan of Kernavė commissioned by Kernavė Town Council, the problems of the development and safeguard this small town arise. The tendencies of enlarging the scale of the small town are evident in Kernavė. They do not correspond to the size of natural spaces and building traditions, First of all, we researched in to the natural conditions according to the landscape units and evaluated their fitness to be used. Examining the old plans of Kernavė and the remaining old buildings we investigated into the traditions of town building. According to the conditions of landscape and the cultural heritage we tried to define the principles of the development of the town and have used them in the new Master Plan of Kernavė. Conclusions: 1. The conditions of the landscape are the important factor of the development of a town. The plain territories suit best for town building and the dominating directions of the inclinations determine the directions of the flow of sewerage, and also the direction of the development of the town. Kernavė should be designed on the western side towards the Neris river valley and the cleaning station of the flow of the sewerage should be built on the western side of the town.2. An entire, without interruptions, street net, the squares by the main crossroads, buildings orientated towards the street and closed yards conform to the traditional structure of the town. In the process of growing into large town its traditional structures are destroyed by the new large scale elements: highways, airports and large buildings. There is a. need to search for new ways of planning for the coordinating the elements of different scales. If the town is small there is no sense in artificial enlarging its structure required by a big town. Natural evolution was a characteristic feature of Kernavė until it became the centre of a collective farm. At that time large cattle - sheds were built at the outskirts and a large cultural centre was built in the centre ofthe town, after destroying the residential block. The main street of Kernius was remade into a footway and the bus station was moved to the outskirts. These ways of the development of the town disfigured the town: communication and orientation in the area became worse, lots off disadvantageous places appeared and the town lost its originality. 3. The originality of the town can not be kept by saving old buildings or by rebuilding them. Only separate elements can be saved in this way. First of all, the structure of the town should be replaced and developed according to traditional principles of town development. Driving should be permitted in Kernius street and all blocks have to be in circled by streets. New buildings in Kernius street have to be built according to the traditional building line, and the squares are to be formed near the most important buildings. The bus station should be replaced to the town centre. [From the publication]

ISSN:
1392-0316
Related Publications:
Miestelio ir upės vardas Kernavė / Aleksandras Vanagas. Musninkai. Kernavė. Čiobiškis / sudarytojai: Stanislovas Buchaveckas, Jadvyga Barbaravičienė, Povilas Krikščiūnas. Vilnius: Versmė, 2005. P. 971-972.
Permalink:
https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/15428
Updated:
2018-12-17 10:52:16
Metrics:
Views: 2    Downloads: 3
Export: