Darbo užmokestis ir darbininkų bei tarnautojų šeimų gyvenimo lygis Lietuvoje, Latvijoje ir Estijoje 1938–1940 metais

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Darbo užmokestis ir darbininkų bei tarnautojų šeimų gyvenimo lygis Lietuvoje, Latvijoje ir Estijoje 1938–1940 metais
In the Journal:
Lituanistica. 2007, Nr. 4, p. 19–35
Keywords:
LT
Lietuvos darbininkai; Latvijos darbininkai; Estijos darbininkai; tarnautojai; darbo užmokestis; šeima; šeimos pajamos; gyvenimo lygis; darbo užmokesčio indeksas; šeimos pajamų indeksas; Baltijos šalys; Baltijos šalių ekonomika; darbininkų ir tarnautojų padėtis.
EN
Lithuanian workers; Latvian workers; Estonina workers; salary; family; living standart; family income; salary value index; index of family income; Baltic states; economies of Baltic countries; the situation of laborers.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje analizuojamas Lietuvos, Latvijos ir Estijos pramonės darbuotojų darbo užmokestis 1938–1940 m. pagal kategorijas bei pramonės šakas, įvertinamos miesto darbininkų ir tarnautojų šeimų pajamos. Apskaičiuoti darbo užmokesčio ir šeimos pajamų indeksai. Nors darbininko vyro vidutinis mėnesio darbo užmokestis Lietuvoje 4% viršijo darbininko latvio ir 29% – darbininko esto uždarbį, gamyboje užimto pramonės darbininko šeima realiai gyveno tik kiek geriau už analogišką šeimą Estijoje ir pastebimai blogiau už analogišką šeimą Latvijoje. Atsižvelgus į bedarbių ir į ne visą laiką gamyboje užimtų asmenų skaičių, vidutinės pramonės darbininko šeimos pajamos, skaičiuojant vidutiniškai vienam sąlyginiam vartotojui, Lietuvoje buvo 8–24% mažesnės už esto šeimos pajamas ir net 39–63% mažesnės už latvio šeimos pajamas. Kadangi pramonės darbininkai sudarė didžiausią miesto samdomų darbininkų dalį, akivaizdu, kad miesto darbininkijos gyvenimo lygis Lietuvoje buvo žemesnis už Estijos ir ypač Latvijos darbininkų materialinę gerovę.

ENAccording to salary statistics of industry workers per 8-hour workday, Lithuanian and Latvian workers got more or less the same wage in the end of the 4th decade of the 20th century. The difference was only that Latvian men workers got less and women workers got bigger payment than Lithuanians. Meanwhile Estonian workers' salary was about 24% less than that of Lithuanian workers. Lithuanian skilled workers' day payment surpassed by 6% that of Latvians and 36% of Estonians. The difference between men's and women's salaries in Latvia and Estonia was less compared with Lithuanians. Skilled Lithuanian women workers got by about 13% higher salaries than Latvian and 36% than Estonian women. Lithuanian skilled men workers were paid 18% more than Latvian and 39% more than Estonian skilled workers. The difference between skilled and unskilled workers' day payment was less in Latvia and Estonia in comparison with Lithuania, so unskilled workers got the biggest payment not in Lithuania but in Latvia (15% more than Lithuanians), and the day payment of Estonian unskilled workers was less only by 11% than of the same category Lithuanian workers. Unskilled men workers in Lithuania were paid 11% less than Latvians and 17% more than Estonians. Unskilled women workers were paid 16% less than Latvian and 8% more than Estonian women. Monthly payment statistics in 1939 shows that a Lithuanian industry worker was paid about 19% more (in April 1940 - 13%) than an Estonian worker and about 8% more (at the beginning of 1940s the same) than a Latvian worker.Estonian and Latvian families were smaller than Lithuanian, but more Estonian and Latvian women worked in manufacture. So the Lithuanian family's real wage in 1939 was 16 to 21% lower than of the Latvian and only 10% higher than of the Estonian family. Consequently, the Lithuanian industry worker's family lived slightly better than the Estonian and notably worse than the Latvian family. Considering the unemployment index, the average Lithuanian industry worker's family wage was by 8 to 24% lower than Estonian and 39 to 63% lower than Latvian. Forasmuch as industry workers comprised the biggest part of urban employed workers, obviously urban workers' living standard in Lithuania was lower than in Estonia and in Latvia. Although Lithuanian industry worker's salary was highest, the essence was different, because: 1. In Lithuania, there were more unemployed and part-time workers. 2. Fewer women had a job. 3. Lithuanian worker families were bigger. 4. Lithuanian workers paid higher taxes. 5. Lithuanians got less gaining from state or municipal consumption funds. [From the publication]

ISSN:
0235-716X; 2424-4716
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https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/11638
Updated:
2018-12-17 11:57:52
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