Lietuvininkų dainuojamoji tautosaka Klaipėdos apylinkėse XIX–XX a.

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Lietuvininkų dainuojamoji tautosaka Klaipėdos apylinkėse XIX–XX a
Alternative Title:
'Lietuvininkai' folk songs in the Klaipėda district in the 19th and 20th centuries
In the Journal:
Res humanitariae. 2022, t. 30, p. 90–113
Muzika / Music.
Summary / Abstract:

LTPrūsijos lietuviai, arba lietuvininkai, ir jų dainuojamoji tautosaka nuo ankstyviausių aprašymų ir tyrinėjimų dažniausiai buvo traktuojami kaip visuma. Tačiau Mažosios Lietuvos etnografinis regionas yra didžiulė teritorija, iš šiaurės į pietus nusidriekusi per du šimtus kilometrų. Joje nustatyti du tarpusavyje besiskiriantys lietuvininkų etninės muzikos plotai. Šio straipsnio tikslas – ištirti iki Antrojo pasaulinio karo buvusioje Klaipėdos apskrityje, dabar beveik sutampančioje su Klaipėdos rajonu, gyvavusios tautosakos muzikinius bruožus ir atskleisti jos savitumą visos lietuvininkų dainuojamosios tautosakos kontekste. Pagrindiniai žodžiai: lietuvininkai, dainuojamoji tautosaka, Klaipėdos apylinkės, Mažoji Lietuva. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe article aims to investigate the musical features of sung folklore in the northern part of the Klaipėda district between 1846 and 1994, and to reveal its uniqueness in the sung folklore of Lithuania Minor. The object of the research is 166 Lietuvininkai songs and their melodies from the area. They make up 24% of the 690 melodies from Lithuania Minor that are attributed to ethnic Lietuvininkai music. The aims of the study are: 1) to discuss the periods of the gathering of song melodies and the personalities and institutions related to the object of the study; and 2) to analyse features of the song melodies and compare them with the results of previous summarised studies of ethnic Lietuvininkai music. The author’s previous studies have shown that the gathering, dissemination, vitality and prestige of the folklore of Lithuania Minor are closely related to cultural and educational centres, the personalities who worked there, historical events, geopolitical shifts, etc (Petrošienė 2011, 164). Two periods of complete (text and melody) song gathering have been identified in the study area: 1846 to 1887, and 1949 to 1994. These periods are separated by 62 years, including the interwar period when Lithuania Minor was the focus of special attention from Lithuanian folklorists. However, no melodies were gathered in the Klaipėda district at that time. Ideas for collecting and publishing folklore came from the University of Königsberg at the beginning of the 19th century. Still, those who were prepared for this work only reached the Klaipėda district, a peripheral part of East Prussia, at the end of the century. The most significant contribution to the early period of the fully fledged collection and publication of Lietuvininkai sung folklore belongs to Adalbert Bezzenberger. The second fruitful phase of gathering musical folklore in the Klaipėda district began after the Second World War.Dr Jonas Balys, who emigrated to the United States, continued the work of collecting folklore that had been started in Lithuania. He used technical means to record folklore from emigrés, including Lietuvininkai. At the same time, the ideological environment and the demographic situation in the Klaipėda region changed significantly, as did the methodology and technical possibilities of folklore collection. Folklore researchers from Lithuanian research and study institutions recorded the last and most valuable examples of ethnic music from a small number of Lietuvininkai. The formal features of the melodies studied are consistent with the characteristics of all ethnic Lietuvininkai music. The tunes gathered in the Klaipėda district are in both monophonic and homophonic styles, but the latter are even more numerous there than in the southern part of Lithuania Minor. There are also more melodies of a major character (80%). Song melodies from the Klaipėda district are the most suitable material for a comparative analysis of the ethnic music of Lithuania Minor, as quite a lot of songs (66%) have 19th and 20th-century versions sung in the study area or all across Lithuania Minor. The songs are grouped according to the period during which the material was gathered. Three groups of songs emerge: 1) melodies gathered only in the 19th century (11%); 2) versions of melodies gathered in both the 19th and 20th century (37%); and 3) melodies recorded only in the 20th century (52%). Analysing the groups mentioned above allows us to assess the melodica’s qualitative and quantitative parameters, variation, stability and uniqueness. The first group is dominated by melodies with no variants, quite close to professional music compositions. Some songs belong to genres whose songs were not often sung, or were sent to the clergy or singing teachers who collected folklore in Lithuania Minor.Bezzenberger was a secular scholar interested in the Lithuanian language, ethnography and archaeology, which is probably why his manuscripts contain a wider variety of folklore content. The melodies in the second group are the most rewarding material for melodic comparison in the study area. Most melodies show a stable, relatively longlasting local melodic and repertory character. The third group of melodies is the most numerous and the most varied. It also contains a large number of songs with no variants. These are often (but not always) songs related to children, nature or humour, anonymous or identifiable original works, translations of German or Latvian songs that spread through educational establishments, neighbours of other nationalities, etc. A group of melodies emerged that were probably widely sung. Some of them are stable, i.e. almost identical to each other. Others are unstable, i.e. songs of the same type were sung to different tunes. In the catalogue of Lithuanian folk songs, the songs of all the research groups usually belong to a small group that is far from the main version of the type. All three groups of songs from the Klaipėda district contain melodies, versions of which are found in Liudvikas Reza’s literary legacy (eight pieces), but they have almost nothing in common. The study has shown that the melodies of songs from the Klaipėda district are distinct, and significantly different to the musical expression of the Lietuvininkai who lived in the south of Lithuania Minor. Keywords: Lietuvininkai (inhabitants of Lithuania Minor), folk songs, Klaipėda district, Lithuania Minor. [From the publication]

1822-7708; 2538-922X
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2023-04-04 23:18:10
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