Dorożki w Wilnie w latach 1864-1914

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lenkų kalba / Polish
Dorożki w Wilnie w latach 1864-1914
Alternative Title:
Cabs in Vilnius in the years 1864-1914
In the Journal:
Kwartalnik historii kultury materialnej [Quarterly of the history of material culture]. 2020, 68, 1, p. 87-102
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Vilnius; Viešasis transportas; Samdomi ekipažai. Keywords: Vilnius; Public transport; Cabs.
19 amžius; 20 amžius; Transportas / Transport.
19th century; 20th century; Cabs; Public transport.
Summary / Abstract:

ENAt the turn of the 20th c. the population and territory of Vilnius were growing. Before the outbreak of the Great War, the city had almost 200 000 inhabitants. In the period researched in this paper cabs were the only means of public transport available round the clock, also on holidays. Various models were available: from old-fashioned narrow “sausages”, through modern “Milodras”, to spacious “Victorias”, which could carry four people. Cabs were divided into the first and second class, according to the quality of service. The class was assigned by municipal clerks on the basis of compulsory cyclic inspections, which concerned the looks and condition of the cab, the driver and the horse. All the vehicles had to be equipped with lights and an identification number, which was assigned by the authorities. Other equipment depended on the owner’s invention and financial standing. Cab-drivers were obliged to pay the municipal authorities for assigning the number, for the vehicle and for extending the concession. They came from various social classes. They wore characteristic uniforms: dark long overcoats and peaked caps.. Horse cabs waited for customers in specially designated places; a cab could also be waved to stop anywhere if it was free. Passengers were carried in any direction within the city and outside, at a fixed hour or with stops, the only condition being the payment of the appropriate fare. The fares differed according to the class of the vehicle, the time of the day and the zone the city (the centre or the outskirts). The prices were decided by the municipal authorities. The drivers’ earnings depended on the number and distance of fares, which were difficult to predict.In 1906 The Association of Cab-drivers and Coachmen was established to unite those two professional groups. Its members had to pay a fee, but were granted various economic concessions. The association was led by a democratically elected board. Even though cabs were the most popular means of public transport, hiring one was quite an expense for an average city-dweller. Press relations indicate that cabs sometimes had accidents but passengers were usually not seriously injured. Since horsecars appeared in Vilnius in 1893, the popularity of cabs gradually decreased; nevertheless, throughout the period in question cabs were a major section of public transport. [From the publication]

0023-5881; 2719-6496
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2022-12-29 10:00:24
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