Religiniai XVIII-XIX a. ant stiklo tapyti paveikslėliai Lietuvoje

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Knygos dalis / Part of the book
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Religiniai XVIII-XIX a. ant stiklo tapyti paveikslėliai Lietuvoje
Alternative Title:
Religious 18th-19th century pictures on glass in Lithuania
Religinė dailė; Tapyba ant stiklo; Tapybos technikos; Paveikslėliai; Stiklas; Sakralinė; Religinė; Istorija (XVIII-XIX a.).
Religiuous fine arts; Painting on glass; Technology of painting; Picture; Glass; Religious.
Summary / Abstract:

LTProfesionaliai ant stiklo tapyti religiniai paveikslėliai būdingi XVIII ir XIX a. Lietuvos katalikų bažnyčių ir dvarų dekorui, tokie paveikslėliai minimi Lietuvos miestiečių aplinkoje. Apie tai galima spręsti skaitant įrašus bažnyčių, dvarų dokumentuose, miestiečių turto surašymuose, kitokio pobūdžio istoriografiniuose paminėjimuose ir tyrinėjant negausius tokio tipo eksponatus Lietuvos muziejuose, bažnyčiose, privačiose kolekcijose. Kol kas apie ankstesnius nei XVIII a. kūrinius patvirtina tik vienas surastas įrašas Pasvalio bažnyčios XVII a. antrosios pusės inventoriuje, kuris visgi leidžia užsiminti apie pavienius ankstesnius pavyzdžius. Tokie paveikslėliai dažnai buvo laikomi zakristijose arba kabinami bažnyčioje ant sienų. Taip pat šie nedideli blizgūs tapybos darbeliai pastatomi ant altorių mensų ar įkomponuojami virš tabernakulių. 2007 m. atliktos keturiolikos Lietuvos muziejų fondų peržiūros parodė, kad ant stiklo nutapytų religinių paveikslėlių savo rinkiniuose turi tik Lietuvos dailės muziejus (5 vnt.) ir Trakų istorijos muziejus (1 vnt.). Telšių „Alkos“ muziejuje ir Lietuvos dailės muziejuje be religinių yra pasaulietinės tematikos kūrinėlių (portretų, peizažų, žanrinių scenų, natiurmortų). Kadangi nėra atlikta išsami visos Lietuvos bažnyčių dailės paminklų inventorizacija, sunku pasakyti kiek ant stiklo tapytų XVIII–XIX a. paveikslėlių tebepuošia katalikų maldos namus. Šiai dienai žinomi tik du paveikslėliai išsaugoti Paparčių Šv. vyskupo Stanislovo ir Šv. Pranciškaus Asyžiečio bažnyčioje. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe research carried out over the past years has revealed that religious pictures painted professionally on glass are characteristic of the 18th-19th century décor of Lithuanian Catholic churches and manors. Such pictures are also mentioned within the surroundings of Lithuanian burghers. Such information has been taken from the church records, estate documentation, inventory lists of burghers, and other historiographical sources as well as from the investigations of sparse exhibits of the kind in Lithuanian museums, churches, and private collections. So far, the works of art created before the 18th century can only be confirmed by a single record in the inventory of the Pasvalys church drawn during the second half of the 17th century, which, nevertheless, allows us to mention individual earlier examples. [...] In 2007, the reviews of the funds of fourteen Lithuanian museums showed that only the Lithuanian Art Museum possessed religious paintings on glass (5 items) in its collections. Next to sacral items the Telšiai Alka museum as well as the Lithuanian Art Museum own secular works of art (e.g. portraits, sceneries, genre scenes, and still-lives). As a detailed inventory of the fine arts monuments of all Lithuanian churches has not been performed, it is difficult to say how many 18th-19th century pictures painted on glass still decorate Catholic shrines. So far, only two pictures have been preserved in the St. Bishop Stanislaus and St. Francis of Assisi church in Paparčiai.Formerly, the pictures used to embellish the Chapel of the Papartėliai Manor (Kaišiadorys reg.), and in 1866 after the closing down of the chapel, they were moved to the Žasliai church. During 1911-1920, the pictures were given to a new church built in 1916 in Paparčiai. One votive-medallion with glass painting miniatures is stored at the Trakai parish church of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The medallion was created in 1850-1875 and donated to the Trakai church in 1936. Alongside the aforementioned works of art kept in museums and churches, there is one more picture on glass preserved in a private collection. In Lithuania, the pictures painted in tempera or oil on the back side of glass can be separated into two technological groups such as those painted on glass and those referred to as "painted on mirror." The mirror like glitter of the examples from the latter group was usually obtained by covering the background surfaces on the back side of a glass sheet with silver powder. Pictures of religious nature painted with the help of various techniques can be found within the data of archival sources; moreover, this can be confirmed by the analysis of the preserved works. Both techniques are typical not only in Lithuania but also in the European fine arts on glass. [...].In Lithuania, the painting of sacral pictures on glass can be associated with the fashion of those times, i.e. the tradition of votive offerings. Moreover, this type of painting may be attributed to the Baroque tradition of the first half of the 19th century, when the altars in Lithuanian churches were decorated abundantly with mirrors of varying sizes. Not only monochrome, but also several-hued mirror material was used for decorating purposes. It was mainly applied on wooden surfaces or at the sides of altar paintings and sculptures, which is considered unusual nowadays. Also, churches were decorated with mirrors in ornate and carved frames. The altar at the Grievous Mother of God church in Pikeliai (Mažeikiai reg.) could be singled out as the example of such preserved décor. Such plastic art is also recorded in archival sources containing the descriptions of altars glistening with ample amounts of mirrors. The conclusion can be drawn that glittering religious paintings on glass suited fine the interior of the 18th-19th century Lithuanian Catholic churches, where rich glitter of mirror like décor, surfaces of reliquaries, votive offerings, and painting casings glowed in the candlelight. Unfortunately, only several paintings created on fragile glass sheets survived; therefore, during the 20th century they were forgotten and overlooked by Lithuanian researchers of the fine arts. It is possible that this presentation will serve as the pretext to take a closer look at these interesting, valuable and highly fragile painted works. [From the publication]

2020-07-28 20:26:18
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