Viršelių puošybos, inicialų, protoekslibrisų ir grafičių kaita XV-XX a. Vilniaus universiteto bibliotekos inkunabuluose

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Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Viršelių puošybos, inicialų, protoekslibrisų ir grafičių kaita XV-XX a. Vilniaus universiteto bibliotekos inkunabuluose
Alternative Title:
Development of the cover decorations, initials, proto-exlibris and graffitis inthe incunables of Vilnius University Library throughout the 15-20th centuries
In the Journal:
Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis [AAAV]. 2021, t. 101/102, p. 14-68. Materialus knygos kūnas: tradicijos ir naujovių sąveikos = The material body of the book: between traditions and innovation
Reikšminiai žodžiai: Inkunabulai; Puošyba; Proveniencijos; Vilniaus universiteto biblioteka; Marginalijos; Inicialai; Protoekslibrisai; Grafičiai; Viršeliai; Incunabula; Decoration; Provenances; Vilnius University Library; Marginalia; Initials; Proto-exlibris; Graffiti; Initials, proto-exlibris and graffitis; Covers.
Bibliotekos / Libraries; Grafičiai; Inicialai; Inkunabulai; Marginalijos; Protoekslibrisai; Proveniencijos; Puošyba; Viršeliai.
Covers; Decoration; Graffiti; Incunabula; Initials; Initials, proto-exlibris and graffitis; Marginalia; Proto-exlibris; Provenances.
Summary / Abstract:

LTStraipsnyje pateikiama Vilniaus universiteto bibliotekos inkunabulų kolekcijoje (340 pavadinimų, 218 fizinių vnt.) saugomų egzempliorių viršelių, teksto puošimo, proveniencinių ženklų (protoekslibrisų) ir marginalijų (skaitymo ženklų, grafičių ir nuorodinių rankyčių) analizė. Visi šie kiekvienam inkunabului individualūs požymiai yra aptariami ir priskiriami tam tikram laikotarpiui, remiantis tuo metu vyravusiomis viršelio puošimo, inicialų piešimo, proveniencinių ir skaitymo ženklų tendencijomis arba datomis, kurios nustatytos iš įrašų knygoje arba identifikavus buvusių inkunabulų savininkų gyvenimo ar veiklos metus. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe research comprises a study and registry of the decor details, provenances and reading marks involving 340 names taken from the 218 copies of the Vilnius University Library incunabula spanning over several epochs. The research has shown that each time period had its own characteristic ways of adapting the books to the convenience of their owners, which includes their decoration, repair, provenancing and reading mark-making. The covers of the late Baroque or the Age of Enlightenment feature 15th–16th century corner pieces, book clasps or fragments of leather cover or spine. The damaged or outmoded 15th-16th century original covers were sometimes replaced with covers from the later epochs. From the end of the 18th century to the begining of the 20th century the original book covers were often replaced with he covers scavenged from other books, or adorned with the elements made of new materials thus bearing the traits, typical of that period. These alterations were made primarily for the decorative purposes. Only a few incunabula in the Vilnius University Library bound in luxurious covers in the 15th–16th centuries have survived. They usually lack corner and central pieces, parts of the book clasps, or these parts are found later on the book covers from later periods. The leather parts of the old covers would later get repaired with patches of leather or parchment from other centuries. In the cases of covers damage, the incunabula would be rebound into the book coverings of that time. In the 15th–16th centuries, in the places where the printed initials were lacking, beautiful and colourful initials were drawn as substitutes. They were later replaced with simple, inked letters. The most splendid initials were drawn in the 15th–16th centuries.In the Baroque era, it was popular to decorate previously painted initials with ornaments typical of that period, or to fill the empty initial letter spaces with black or red ink letters decorated with geometric ornaments. In the 18th–19th centuries, the owners would write the simple initials in black or brown ink, later with pencil. In the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, provenance signs – proto-exlibris – were not as splendid as those drawn in Western Europe, but remained longer and were drawn in books until the end of the 16th century. Pointing hands from the 15th–16th centuries stand out for their elegance and typically red ink. During the later centuries they were simplified, while in more recent times – they were completely replaced with the reference “NB” (“Nota bene”). The Renaissance ‘reference hands‘ with a long index finger, were popular in Europe until the end of the 15th century. In our region they remained longer and were painted until the begining of the 17th century. In the incunabula of Vilnius University library, the graffitis can be divided into three types: hand-drawn decorative ornaments, drawings illustrating certain passages in the text, and drawings unrelated to the book which may be described as ‘nib tests‘. [From the publication]

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2022-03-14 18:50:07
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