Užuojautos samprata „Gramatologijoje“

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Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Užuojautos samprata „Gramatologijoje“
Alternative Title:
Concept of pity in "Of Grammatology"
In the Journal:
Logos (Vilnius). 2006, 47, p. 156-163
Keywords:
LT
Derrida; Suplementas; Užuojauta; Prigimtis; Protas.
EN
Derrida; Supplement; Pity; Nature; Mind.
Summary / Abstract:

LTGerai žinoma, kad knygoje „Apie gramatologiją“ Derrida pateikia savo idėjas interpretuodamas keletą ankstesnių filosofinių teorijų. Skyriuje, skirtame Jeano Jacques‘o Rousseau minčių analizei, Derrida pažymi, kad viena iš kertinių Rousseau moralės filosofijos sąvokų yra užuojauta. Analizuodamas šią sąvoką, autorius siekia įrodyti, kad veikaluose „Samprotavimas apie žmonių nelygybės kilmę ir pagrindus“ bei „Esė apie kalbų kilmę“ Rousseau pateikia beveik nesiskiriančias prigimtinės žmogaus būklės interpretacijas. Manytume, kad užuojautos sampratos analizė yra įdomi pati savaime, be to, ji padeda suvokti vienos iš pagrindinių Derrida filosofijos sąvokų – suplemento – teorinę paskirtį. Norėdami išryškinti užuojautos interpretacijos ypatybes, pirmiausia panagrinėsime jos prasmių istoriją ankstesnėje filosofijoje. Užuojautą Vakarų filosofai vertino nevienareikšmiškai. Straipsnyje darysime prielaidą, kad analizuodamas Rousseau veikalus, Derrida, nors pats to nesiekia, duoda galimybę ieškoti sąsajų tarp dviejų priešingų užuojautos sampratų, ir bandysime ją pagrįsti. [Iš Įvado]

ENIt is well known that Derrida presents his ideas in the book Of Grammatology with an interpretation of a few of the earliest philosophical theories. Derrida notes that pity is one of the basic concepts of Rousseauís moral philosophy in the chapter that is devoted to the analysis of his thought. The author seeks to substantiate that Rousseau offers near interpretations of the inherent human state in his works Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality Among Man and Essay on the Origin of Languages. The analysis of the concept of pity is interesting in itself, and it lets us conceive the theoretical purpose of the concept of supplement, which is one of the key concepts in Derridian philosophy. The article starts with an exploration of the history of the meaning of pity in earliest philosophy awitht the aim of highlighting of the peculiarities its interpretation. There are various appreciations of pity in Western philosophy. Further, the supposition that Derrida provides us a possibility to search for a connection of two opposite notions of pity (though he himself does not attain it) is made and is attempted to motivate. The conclusion is made that mostly authors that consider the mind as an exclusive source of morally valuable action criticize pity.The other motive of the critical approach to pity is the attitude that pity injures the self-esteem of the person who is appreciated pityingly, that it is unwanted for a person with a strong spirit, that a person, who expresses compassion feels egoistic pleasure as well. The positive approach to pity is chiefly conditioned by the conviction that the experience of our own suffering makes us feel pity for an other, if we notice his distress. Pity is considered as the first altruistic feeling that supplements natural human egoism in this case. Pity is cogitated according to the logic of supplementarity in Of Grammatology. On the one hand pity is a natural feeling, the first derivative of amour-propre. The interpretation of pity is close to the Kantian one at this point. On the other hand the pity that is characteristic of a living being innately consists in the human person only potentially. It is actualized when it is supplemented by the imagination. In turn, the imagination is in human nature and supplements it, providing the possibility to imag ine the otherís suffering, to compare it with ours, to judge. So the interpretation of actualized pity is close to theories that consider pity as human, mediated by thought, a morally valuable quality. [...]. [From the publication]

ISSN:
0868-7692
Related Publications:
Estetologija glaustai, arba naujo humanitarinio mokslo kontūrai / Juozas Mureika. Inveniens quaero. Ieškoti, rasti, nenurimti / sudarytojai: Grasilda Blažienė, Sandra Grigaravičiūtė, Aivas Ragauskas. Vilnius: Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto leidykla, 2011. P. 107-147.
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Updated:
2020-09-29 15:32:56
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