Lietuvos Respublikos civilinio kodekso projektas 1918–1940 m.: nesėkmės priežastys

Collection:
Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Language:
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Title:
Lietuvos Respublikos civilinio kodekso projektas 1918–1940 m.: nesėkmės priežastys
Alternative Title:
Draft of civil code of the Republic of Lithuania 1918-1940: failure reasons
In the Journal:
Teisės apžvalga [Law review]. 2020, Nr. 1(21), p. 254-266
Keywords:
LT
Civilinio kodekso projektas; Civilinis kodeksas.
EN
Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania; Civil code; Draft of Civil Code; Lithuania.
Summary / Abstract:

LTTyrime aptariamos priežastys, kurios nulėmė po valstybingumo atkūrimo 1918–1940 m. laikotarpiu nesėkmingus bandymus kodifikuoti Lietuvos Respublikos Civilinį kodeksą, kai tuo tarpu kitos kaimyninės valstybės, tame tarpe ir Latvija, Lenkija priėmė svarbiausią privatinės teisės kodifikuotą aktą ir taip išvengė teisinio partikuliarizmo1078 sudaromų kliūčių taikyti vieningą civilinės teisės sureguliavimą. Nacionalinė teisėkūra nuo 1918 m. pradėjo formuotis ir formavosi svetimų teisės šaltinių, galiojusių Lietuvos Respublikos teritorijoje šimtmetį iki Pirmojo pasaulinio karo, pagrindu. Pradžioje apsiribota teisės Rusijos, Prancūzijos, Vokietijos civilinės teisės aktų recepcija, vėliau – parengti šių teisės aktų vertimai, o galutiniu tikslu turėjo tapti galutinis svetimos teisės šaltinių atsisakymas, priimant vieningą visai Respublikai civilinį kodeksą. Prasidėjusius teisėkūros procesus sustabdė sovietinė okupacija. [Iš leidinio]

ENThe study discusses the reasons that led during the period of restoration of statehood in 1918–1940. to unsuccessful attempts to codify the Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania, while other neighboring states, including Latvia and Poland, adopted the most important codified act of private law, thus avoiding the obstacles created by legal particularism to apply a unified civil law settlement. National legislation since 1918 began to form and formed on the basis of foreign sources of law, which existed in the territory of the Republic of Lithuania for a century before the First World War. Initially, the law was limited to Russian, French and German civil law, and later, translations of the law were drafted, and the goal was to finally abandon foreign law sources by adopting a unified civil code for the entire Republic. But for long period of time, the State Council was overloaded by the Cabinet of Ministers with preparation of legislation in the area of the public law (enacting Law of Municipalities, Presidential Election Law, Taxes Law, etc.) which detached their forces from the codification of civil law initially regarded as priority. In 1937 finally, the State Council formed a special commission for drafting a Lithuanian Civil Code. The main task was to prepare a ‚purely’ Lithuanian Code avoiding usage of any foreign laws. This requirement was related to the nationalistic ideology that prevailed in Lithuania.There were proposed methods to make the work of commission to be more efficient: 1) To translate the most suitable Civil code of foreign country and to establish it (i.e. in the way of law reception). 2) To apply the most suitable part of civil obligations law from Civil code of foreign country. Other parts of Civil code must be national (i.e. with national characteristics). The commission could not work as professional lawyers and legislators. They had to follow official opinion. The chairman of State Council Stasys Šilingas declared mandatory requirements for the Civil Code (1937): 1) Clearness. It must be clear to everybody: no examples of incidents, but neither only basic law norms. 2) Relevancy: the law norms must be relevant. 3) Comprehensiveness: The terms and definitions must be understandable for everybody. In 1940 only the general provisions of the Law of Obligations and Family Law were completed: Marriage regulations (the novelty was an opportunity to divorce or live in separation status (lot. – separatio a thoro et mensa), Law on Custody, the part of civil obligations. The ongoing legislative process was halted by the Soviet occupation: the new Code was only half way through the process. [From the publication]

DOI:
10.7220/2029-4239.21.9
ISSN:
2029-4239
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Permalink:
https://www.lituanistika.lt/content/87307
Updated:
2020-12-17 20:23:38
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