Architektūros idėjos tarpukaryje. 1. Politika ir tautiškumas

Mokslo publikacijos / Scientific publications
Document Type:
Straipsnis / Article
Lietuvių kalba / Lithuanian
Architektūros idėjos tarpukaryje. 1. Politika ir tautiškumas
Alternative Title:
Architecture ideas of the interwar period I: politics and nationality
In the Journal:
Archiforma. 2008, Nr. 1, p. 84-88
Architektūra; Liaudies menas; Lietuvos tarpukario architektūra; Modernizmas; Politika; Tarpukaris; Tautinis tapatumas; Tautiškumas.
Architecture; Folk art; Lithuanian interwar architecture; Modernism; Nacionality; National identity; Politics; The Interwar Period.
Summary / Abstract:

LT[...] Tarpukario nepriklausomybės dešimtmečiais neišvengta aiškiai pastebimų ekonomikos, politikos ir idėjų transformacijų, tačiau tautinis architektūros įprasminimas išliko viena pastoviausių idėjų, vienijusių diskusijai įvairių kartų ir pažiūrų architektus bei kultūros veikėjus. Tiesa, čia verta atkreipti dėmesį, kad spaudoje ar tribūnose išsakomos mintys ne visada turėjo įtakos architektūros formai, nebūtinai bylojo apie kokį nors "tautinį stilių" su jam būdinga formaliųjų bruožų visuma. Dauguma tekstų apie architektūrą tiesiog atspindi bendrąsias kultūrines politines tendencijas. O tautiškumas neretai tapatinamas su kiekvienu pozityvesniu architektūros reiškiniu. [...]. [Iš straipsnio, p. 85]

ENThrough review of national identity theories of architecture, the article aims at turning back to the beginnings of both modern architecturology of Lithuania and relation between architecture and politics. Despite the fact that national style ideas were cherished rather consistently within the entire interwar period, the article envisages certain development of the idea.The first steps with no doubt shall be related to the wish to get rid of the tail of Tsarist Russia as soon as possible and to develop an architectural face of the new state. In this stage, the critical role was played perhaps by folk art researchers having stated that folk art is the best basis for developing a national style. It was offered to create the new architecture following the example of wooden dwelling houses, crosses and other branches of folk art. Fragmentally, the Lithuanian style was also identified with looking back to stylistic architecture. Here, the greatest importance was assigned to baroque related both to Vilnius baroque heritage and particularity of softly waving landscape. Qualitatively, another stage shall be linked to the architects of the new generation. Beginning of the thirties showed up a striving to form the language of the new architecture able to evoke patriotic feelings none the less as the structures created under folk art traditions do. Supporters of the idea offered to consider psychological principles, typical proportions, peculiarities of plan structure and even natural situation. Obviously, these were innovative principles close to progressive regionalism ideas.Monumental spaces constitute an individual tool forgiving a sense to national space. In the small boroughs of Lithuania, monuments to Vytautas the Great and Independence were popular. In this way, obvious efforts were made to supplement religious consciousness of residents with national one. The most telling projection of national pride in architecture, however, implies design and construction of "palaces" that represent the state. Beside a few projects of utopian origin, such edifices as Vytautas the Great Museum, Resurrection Church and House of Officers "Ramovė" in Kaunas should be mentioned, i.e. the buildings that along with the practical meaning also managed to absorb a part of monumental functions.Search for the national style was present even in the times of Independence coming to an end, when the fact that feeling of the Lithuanian form is hardly possible seemed to be perceived already. It may be supposed that in some sense such phenomena were linked to the political world-view that gradually becomes more and more radical all over Europe. Differently from Russia, Germany and Italy, however, Lithuanian turned back not to classic, it remained at national architecture. In summary, it may be stated that giving a sense to national architecture remained one of the most consistent ideas having united for discussion architects and cultural figures of different generations and views. Nevertheless, irrespective of close intertwining of these ideas and politics, discussion on national architecture always preserved a variety of attitudes. [From the publication]

Related Publications:
Moderniosios architektūros paveldas Lietuvoje : teorinis aspektas / Marija Drėmaitė. Journal of architecture and urbanism. 2012, Vol. 36, no. 3, p. 149-160.
2020-12-17 20:22:36
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